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TEAM DEVELOPMENT, TEAM TRAINING. Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills 11 th Edition David W. Johnson Frank P. Johnson. Chapter Thirteen: Objectives. Understand The Nature Of Teams Understand The Different Types Of Teams

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  1. TEAM DEVELOPMENT, TEAM TRAINING Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills 11th Edition David W. Johnson Frank P. Johnson

  2. Chapter Thirteen: Objectives • Understand The Nature Of Teams • Understand The Different Types Of Teams • Understand The Impact Of Organizational Context On Team Functioning • Understand How To Form, Structure, Nurture, And Build Teams • Understand How To Assess The Quality Of Taskwork And Teamwork • Understand The Nature Of Total Quality Management • Understand How To Deal With Problem Behaviors In Teams • Refine Skills In Being A Productive Team Member

  3. What Is A Team? • Team is a set of interpersonal interactions structured to achieve established goals • Team consists of two or more individuals who • Are aware of their positive interdependence as they strive to achieve mutual goals, • Interact while they do so, • Are aware of who is and is not a team member • Have specific roles or functions to perform • Have a limited life span of membership

  4. Team Vs. Working Group • Team: High Interdependence • Mutual Goals • Role Differentiation And Integration • Joint Efforts Required • Working Group: Low Interdependence • Individual Goals For Each Member • No Role Differentiation • Each Member Can Achieve Goal Alone

  5. Types Of Teams • Setting: • Work • Learning • Sports • How They Are Used: • Problem Solving Teams • Special Purpose Teams • Self-Managing Teams • What They Do: • Recommend • Make Or Do • Run, In Charge

  6. Electronically Linked Teams • Benefits: • Communication Is Asynchronous • Communication Is Fast • Participation Is Equalized, Less Affected By Prestige And Status • Participants Feel Freer To Speak Their Minds, Throw Out New Ideas, Disagree With Someone In A Higher Position • Ability To Link With Other Teams, Offices, Locations • Shortcomings: • Relies On Plain Text • Text Is Ephemeral, Quickly Deleted Without Consideration • Participants Less Constrained, Influenced By Conventional Norms • Anonymity Results In Less Individuality, Empathy, Guilt, Concern • Lacks Richness Of Face-To-Face Interaction • Subject To security Issues And Technical Downtime

  7. Research On Teams • Johnson & Johnson (1992) • Working In Cooperative Teams Resulted In Higher Individual Productivity And Achievement Than Did Working Alone, Competitively Or Individualistically • Working In Cooperative Teams Resulted In Higher Group Productivity Than Did Working In Teams With Competitive Or Individualistic Structures • Freeberg & Rock (1987): Cooperation Among Members Important Influence On Team Productivity • Qin, Johnson, & Johnson (1995): Members Of Cooperative Teams Outperformed Individuals Working Competitively Or Individualistically

  8. Organizational Context • Mass-Production Structure: Reduce Costs Of Making Large Quantities Of Same Products • Authority Hierarchy • Divide Work Into Small Component Parts • Individuals Work Separately From Others, Low Interdependence • Individuals Compete With Co-Workers, Low Social Support • Emphasizes Personal Motivation And Responsibility • Team-Based Structure: Continuous Improvement Of Quality Of Products • Individuals Work As Part Of Teams, High Social Support • Small Groups Create Whole Product, High Interdependence • Hierarchy Of Teams Or “Families” • Emphasizes Group Goals, Leadership, Group Responsibility

  9. Organizational Development • Organization Is A Set Of Interpersonal Relationships Structured To Achieve Established Goals. • Organizational DevelopmentIs Use Of Diagnosis And Intervention Procedures To Promote Effective Interpersonal, Group, And Intergroup Behavior Within The Organization • Organizational EffectivenessIs The Extent To Which The Organization Achieves Its Goals With The Use Of Minimal Resources • Achieving Organization’s Goals • Maintaining Effective Working Relationships Among Members • Adapting To External Environment

  10. Action Research Model • Diagnose Current Organizational Functioning • Build Normative Theory • Measure Current Functioning • Analyze Data • Give Feedback To Relevant Members • Discuss And Plan How To Improve • Implement Action Plan • Re-Diagnose

  11. Team Building • Analyzing work procedures and activities to improve team productivity, quality of relationships, level of social skills, and team adaptability • Aimed at increasing long-term team effectiveness • Based on action research model

  12. Forming The Team • Keep Size Of Teams Small • Select Members On Basis Of Expertise And Skills • Provide Resources

  13. Establishing The Team • Redefine Mission Into Specific Team Goals (Positive Interdependence) • Establish Individual and Team Accountability • Build Team Commitment • Provide Training in Task and Team Skills • Promote Group Processing • Conduct Administrative Tasks • Frequent Meetings Where Members Promote Each Other’s Success • Structure First Meetings Carefully • Establish Clear Rules Of Conduct • Expose Team To New Facts And Information

  14. Building Team Commitment • Top Management Gives Team Task • Team Redefines Task Into Mutual Goals • Mutual Goals Are Translated Into Specific Performance Goals That: • Define Work Products • Facilitate Clear Communication And Constructive Conflict Resolution • Measure Progress • Level Power And Status • Allow Group To Achieve Short-Term Goals • Provide Compelling Symbols Of Accomplishment • Accountability: • Individual • Team

  15. Assessing Quality Of Work • Flowchart • Cause-And-Effect Diagram • Check Sheet • Pareto Chart • Run Chart • Scatter Diagram • Histogram

  16. Using Teams For Training • Enhances Achievement Through Oral Rehearsal And Discussion • Members Provide Each Other With Feedback • Members Encourage And Motivate Each Other • Promotes Attitude Development • Changes Self-Identity

  17. Total Quality Management • TQM: Use Of Teams To Improve Continuously The Processes By Which The Product Or Service Is Produced • Continuous Improvement: • Involve Everyone In Search For Incremental Improvements • Provide Training, Resources, Authority To Identify And Solve Problems • Set High-Performance Target And Measure Results • Focus Visions On Needs Of Customer

  18. Deming’s Principles Create Constancy Of Purpose Adopt The New Philosophies Of Quality And Improvement Cease Dependence On Mass Inspection End Awarding Business On Price Tag Alone Improve Constantly Systems Of Work Institute On-The-Job Training Institute Leadership Drive Out Fear Break Down Barriers Between Areas Eliminate Slogans Eliminate Numerical Quotas Remove Barriers To Pride Of Workmanship Institute Vigorous Program Of Education And Self-Improvement Take Action To Accomplish Transformation

  19. Continuous Improvement Procedure • Form Teams • Select A Process For Improvement • Define The Process Clearly • Develop A Design For Gathering Information About the Process to Analyze Its Effectiveness • Generate An Improvement Plan • Institutionalize Changes That Work

  20. Dealing With Problem Behaviors • Passive Uninvolvement • Active Uninvolvement • Independence • Taking Charge

  21. Summary • A team is a set of interpersonal interactions structured to achieve established goals • Teams are more effective than Individuals working by themselves • Differences between a mass-production organization and a team-based high-performance organization • Team effectiveness can be ensured by focusing on team development • Total Quality management fosters continuous improvement • Teamwork problems can be solved

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