Effective Training Techniques Mark A. Hernandez, CHST
Presentation outline • Most frequent cited standards 2011 • Training requirements for General Industry • Other training references: Blooms Taxonomy & ANSI Z 490.1 • ASSE Professional Safety Articles on Effective Training Techniques • OSHA Construction Trainer resources and requirements • OSHA Resources
Training: Pay now or pay later • According to Broad & Newstrom in 1992, an estimated $50 Billion was spent on formal training, with another $90 – 120 Billion on structured training. • ASTD estimated in 2010, that US organizations spent $125.88 Billion dollars on training.
OSHA’s: VPP Program Elements In VPP, management, labor, and OSHA work cooperatively and proactively to prevent fatalities, injuries, and illnesses through a system focused on: hazard prevention and control; worksite analysis; training; and management commitment and worker involvement.
Blooms Taxonomy In 1780 Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence" Although it received little attention when first published in 1956, Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22 languages and is one of the most widely applied and most often cited references in education.
Blooms Taxonomy • Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? • Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? • Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? • Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? • Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? • Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for AcceptedPractices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training • 1.1 Scope - This Standard establishes criteria for safety, health, and environmental training programs, including • development, • delivery, • evaluation, and • program management.
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training • 3.2 The training program shall, at a minimum, include the following elements: - training development, including needs assessment, - learning objectives, - course content and format, - resource materials, and - criteria for course completion (see Section 4 of this Standard)
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training 3. Training Program Administration and Management: • training delivery by Competent Trainers in a suitable training environment(see Section 5 of this Standard) • training evaluation and a continuous improvement system
Effective training: Case Study (Oil & Gas) 1. Compelling content: Must be interesting, credible, and compelling. Lessons learned proved to be significant (relevant story). Use Adult learning theories. 2. Identify the players: The “Master” in the group to act as a narrator for video, describing task and potential hazards. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: March 2011
Pareto Principle: Background In 1906, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created a mathematical formula to describe the unequal distribution of wealth in his country, observing that twenty percent of the people owned eighty percent of the wealth. In the late 1940s, Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the 80/20 Rule to Pareto, calling it Pareto’s Principle. While it may be misnamed, Pareto’s Principle or Pareto’s Law as it is sometimes called, can be a very effective tool to help you manage effectively.
Pareto Principle: How to Implement • Determine which people are the top 20% producers • Spend 80% of your “people time” with the top 20% • Spend 80% of your personnel development dollars on the top 20% • Ask the top 20% to do on-the-job training for the next 20% (Multiply vs. Growth) Source: John C. Maxwell
Greatest Motivational Principle: People Do what People See Step 1: I do it. Step 2: I do it and you’re with me. Step 3: You do it and I’m with you. Step 4: You do it. Step 5: You do it and someone is with you. Compounding (Multiplication) happens when you equip someone who equips someone else. Source: John C. Maxwell
Effective training: Case Study 3. Avoid Common Mistakes: Do not use professional actors, the CEO for videos. The worker knows much more about the job than an outsider. Best choice for the master trainer is the person who looks the part and speaks with occupational (not organizational) authority. (Master/Maestro) Use language that is understood by the workers and is a cultural insider. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: March 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick The Training Process: According to Kline (1985): [T]raining emphasizes the psychomotor domain of learning. Training that is done in the cognitive domain is generally at the knowledgelevel or lower part of the comprehension level. Education, on the other hand, teaches a minimum of psychomotor skills. It concentrates instead on the cognitive domain, especially the higher cognitive levels. (ie. High comprehension & above) Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick For Trainer: Adult Learners retain: • 20% of what they read and hear • 40% of what they See • 50% of what they Say • 60% of what they Do (People do what people See) Building Rapport: (Connecting) • 38% Tonality • 55% Physiology • 7% Words Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick Talk: All kinds: monologues, dialogues, discussions, debates, interviews – promotes creative and critical thinking. Lecturing is the most common form of training – only 20% what is heard is retained. 2. Role Playing: Based on believability of scenario and participants -will gain life & interpersonal skills. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 3. Group Projects with single response: Break-out into 3 or 4 groups, give a scenario with same question, ea. group responds to 2 questions, and has a time-limit for answers. Each group will deliver their responses. 4. Group Project with Individual responses: Similar to 3., with instructor choosing one person and each person writes their own answers. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 5. Group Examination: Each group has a different scenarios and questions, each group give outcomes. 6. Accelerated Learning: A combination of games or activities which involves imaginary and all of the senses in order to create a rich memorable moment (ex. Bingo). Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 7. Student Demonstrations: Show what they know: Allow students who “know” or are proficient in a specific area (Maestro/Master) and allow that person the opportunity to show their proficiency by allowing five minutes to demonstrate skill. 8. Peer Coaching: One-on-One: observe work and give positive feedback Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 9. Guided Discussions: This method is useful when a trainer is trying to help students develop their ability to asses a situation and “think on their feet” “Thinking is the hardest a person can do that is why so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 10. Simulations: A training environment set up to produce a comprehensive “workplace-like” experience. 11. Storytelling: “The single most effective training is telling relevant stories and having students reflect on them” (Blair & Seo. 2007) “Reflection + Experience = Insight” – John C. Maxwell Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 11. Storytelling: Cullen (2007) Four types: • Hero Stories: larger than life characters who saves another worker or prevents a crisis. • Villain stories: one who is opposite of hero and causes the loss of life or crisis. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 11. Storytelling: Cullen (2007) Four types: • Adventure stories: tell of a specific event drama. • Fool stories: character who does things wrong and creates loss of life or crisis. Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Les Brown’s 3 step process of giving value in a story a. Distract: From the present story they are currently listening to (emotionally, mentally, physically etc.) b. Dispute: Strategy to have individual back-away from their present limited belief. –Having a good strategy makes you stand out. c. Inspire: To Behave different differently. Inspire to do more, challenge, think outside their present thinking – add value. Don’t simply tell it, Experience it. Only then will you draw the audience in with you by using your emotions, tone, and body language. You want to take the audience there and experience the moment with you – that’s connecting.
Reflection • Blooms Taxonomy & ANSI Z490.1 are resources for developing clear learning objectives and training that is understood. • Create an environment conducive for the employees growth. • Identify Influencers in the group and equip them to Multiply others. • Engage critical thinking and challenge limited belief systems with any of the groups discussions or questions. This will also increase communication, life, and inter-personal skills. • Use Storytelling as a way to Inform, Challenge, and Inspire employees.
WE IS THE KEY! We is the Key!
Other Resources “Everyone Communicates, Few Connect.” – John C. Maxwell “Tribal Leadership: Levering groups to Build a Thinking Organization” – Dr. Dave Logan “StandOut” – Marcus Buckingham Blooms Taxonomy: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm Les Brown video: http://tellyourstory.lesbrown.com/fe/11655-how-to-tell-your-story-series?r=y
Quotes • “If you know the Why, you can live any How” – Friedrich Nietzsche • Leadership is nothing more & nothing less than Influence” – John C. Maxwell • Trust is the foundation of Influence” – Stephen Covey • “Change is inevitable, Growth is Optional” - JCM • “Only wet babies like change, the rest of us resist it” Scott Faye • “People do what People see” – JCM • “People don’t care what you know until you show them that you care.” - JCM
Employee training must be provided in a language that employees understand: https://www.osha.gov/dep/OSHA-training-standards-policy-statement.pdf OSHA Construction training: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/index.html Intro to OSHA: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/teachingaids.html Construction Focus 4: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/index.html Susan Harwood Grants: http://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/material_listing_topic.html OSHA Training resources
GHS Compliance Assistance Resources • Background: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/global.html http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev02/02files_e.html • GHS PPT:http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/schc/silk_schc_sept05/index.html • Interp: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27218 • Facts on Aligning: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27218
Heat Stress & Fall Prevention Campaign • Heat Stress: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/heatillness/index.html • Fall Prevention: http://www.osha.gov/stopfalls/index.html
NFPA 70E 2012 video updates NTT: http://www.nttinc.com/free-resources/webinars/webinar-nfpa-70e-how-2012-updates-effect-you Loos & Co. Significant Case: • http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=21327
Safety Resources • Business Case for Safety: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/safetyhealth/index.html • http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/products/topics/businesscase/index.html • OSHCON: http://www.tdi.state.tx.us/wc/safety/oshcon.html#WrittenPrograms • Safety Pays: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/safetypays/index.html
OSHA Compliance Assistance Resources • Quick Takes: http://www.osha.gov/as/opa/quicktakes/index.html • Compliance Assistance Quick Start: 1910, 1926, Healthcare, & Hispanichttps://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_assistance/quickstarts/index.html • OSHA Publications:https://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/publication.html • BLS Incident Rate calculator: http://data.bls.gov:8080/IIRC/?data_tool=IIRC
Mark A. Hernandez, Certified Speaker, Trainer, Coach email@example.com, 832-597-5474 http://www.johnmaxwellgroup.com/markhernandez/ Connect with me: LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/mahernandez Facebook: mark.hernandez Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/marka_hernandez Lead Yourself & Multiply Others!
Join SPALW • Celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month in September The Safety Professionals and the Latino Workforce (SPLAW) common interest group would like to offer members the opportunity to join SPLAW for only $5! In addition to your ASSE membership join SPLAW to review research, discuss ideas and suggestions for implementation, network and much more. • Join online and use coupon code 1209SPALW to get your discount. Offer good through September 30, 2012. Discount is for online orders only and applicable to new common interest group membership only (not renewals). • Member link: www.asse.org/JoinGroups • SPALW website: www.asse.org/spalw