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Review for Exam 2. Exam Guidelines. 50-minutes Resources allowed The blue properties booklet You can write anything you want in the white space of this booklet.

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exam guidelines
Exam Guidelines
  • 50-minutes
  • Resources allowed
    • The blue properties booklet
      • You can write anything you want in the white space of this booklet.
      • NO photocopies, no taping, pasting, photocopies, or loose papers
    • A handheld calculator
      • No other electronic devices may be used including cell phones, computers, tablets, music players, etc.
exam information
Exam Information
  • A table of conversion factors will be provided with the exam 
  • NO interpolation will be required 
  • Material covered
    • Everything since the first day of class
      • All in-class lecture material
      • All in-class problem solutions
      • All assigned reading questions
      • All homework assignments
do you know
Do you know ...
  • Meaning of Different Terms in Laws of the Universe?
    • Conservation of mass
    • Conservation of energy
    • Entropy Balance
  • Application of the Laws of the Universe in...
    • Closed system problems?
    • Open system problems?
    • Simple transient problems?
  • The purpose of the following flow devices and how to analyze them using the First Law?
    • Diffuser, Nozzle
    • Boiler, Condenser, Heat Exchanger
    • Throttling Devices
    • Turbine, Compressor, Pump
  • How to find properties with the air tables?
  • Caloric equation of state for an ideal gas?
do you know1
Do you know ...
  • What is meant by reversibility?
  • What causes irreversibility?
  • What is meant by entropy?
  • Characteristic shape of isobars, isotherms, isentropes, and isochores on T-s diagrams?
  • First and second Gibbs equations?

dU = TdS – pdV

dH = TdS + vdP

  • How to represent work and heat transfer for reversible closed system processes on both P-v and T-s diagrams?
do you know2
Do you know ...
  • How to determine the maximum thermal efficiency of a heat engine
  • How to determine the maximum coefficient of performance for a refrigerator or a heat pump?
  • How to determine entropy changes for substances using real fluid, ideal gas, and incompressible substance fluid property models?
  • The polytropic relationships for the special case of ideal gases with constant heat capacity undergoing isentropic processes?
the laws of the universe
The Laws of the Universe

Conservation of Mass – The Continuity Equation

Conservation of Energy – The First Law of Thermodynamics

The Entropy Balance – The Second Law of Thermodynamics

alternate forms 1 st law for closed systems
Alternate Forms: 1st Law for Closed Systems

The First Law over a finite period of time is (making a movie),

The First Law at an instant in time is (taking a picture),

caloric equation of state ideal gas
Caloric Equation of State – Ideal Gas

For an ideal gas,

Since we are dealing with an ideal gas, pv= RT. Therefore,

This leads to the following conclusion (section 3.9.2),

It can also be shown that,

the polytropic process ideal gas
The Polytropic Process – Ideal Gas

Definition of a polytropic process:

If the fluid is an ideal gas,

This leads to two additional relationships for ideal gases,

the polytropic process ideal gas1
The Polytropic Process – Ideal Gas

The work done during a polytropic process is,

If the fluid is an ideal gas,

For the case where n = 1,

ideal gas entropy f t v
Ideal Gas Entropy  f(T,V)

For the ideal gas, recall that

Then from the first Gibbs equation,

Furthermore, if the heat capacity can be assumed constant,

Notice that the entropy of an ideal gas is a function of both temperature and specific volume (or pressure).

ideal gas entropy f t p
Ideal Gas Entropy f(T,P)

For the ideal gas, recall that

Then from the second Gibbs equation,

Furthermore, if the heat capacity can be assumed constant,

Notice that the entropy of an ideal gas is a function of both temperature and pressure.

carnot heat engine
Carnot Heat Engine

E

Kelvin and Rankine suggested that,

Temperatures must be on the absolute scale!

Therefore, the thermal efficiency of a Carnot Heat Engine is,

This is the maximum efficiency of a heat engine!

carnot refrigerator heat pump
Carnot Refrigerator & Heat Pump

For the Refrigeration cycle …

R

For the Heat Pump cycle …