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Forests - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Forests. Importance of Trees. Oxygen Water Food Preventing Erosion Effect on Climate Wildlife Protection Human Needs Carbon Cycle. Forest Ecosystem. Forest Ecosystem. Forest Regions of Canada. Forest Regions of Canada. Common Tree Species. Forest Regions of Ontario.

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Importance of trees
Importance of Trees

  • Oxygen

  • Water

  • Food

  • Preventing Erosion

  • Effect on Climate

  • Wildlife Protection

  • Human Needs

  • Carbon Cycle

Tree identification
Tree Identification

  • Leaf (in summer)

  • Buds (in winter)

  • Bark

  • Shape (Spire or Plume shape)

  • Smell (eg. Cedar)

Deciduous twig alternate
Deciduous Twig: Alternate

Leaf Scar showing vascular bundle arrangement

Coniferous leaves
Coniferous Leaves




Tree measuring
Tree Measuring

Suunto tree height device
Suunto Tree Height Device

Methods of harvesting forests
Methods of Harvesting Forests


Shelterwood Cutting

Selective cutting


Methods of Harvesting Forests

Clear Cutting

Loggers remove every tree and leave a barren landscape.

When replanted, the new forest grows uniformly in species and size = Plantation or Monoculture


Methods of Harvesting Forests

Shelterwood Cutting

Involves thinning the forest and then cutting some on a 10 year cycle.

Shelterwood method is often used in forests that have grown and aged evenly

Small groups of seed bearing trees are left so the area will regenerate.


Methods of Harvesting Forests

Selective Cutting

Only mature trees of the desired size, type or quality

Another shot of the same stand in an area that has been finished--except for picking up a few logs.  The stand is about 65 years old.

Secondary succession
Secondary Succession


Land clearing


Forest Fire

Clear Cutting

Natural Disasters


Climate Change

Invasive Species