mangrove forests n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Mangrove Forests PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Mangrove Forests

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Mangrove Forests - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 338 Views
  • Uploaded on

Mangrove Forests. Dr. James A. Danoff-Burg Columbia University. Mangrove Forests. Found in coastal areas all over the tropics Primarily in brackish water salty and fresh mix Cover approximately 22 million hectares in tropical and subtropical coasts. Ecosystem Functions & Threats.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Mangrove Forests


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
mangrove forests

Mangrove Forests

Dr. James A. Danoff-Burg

Columbia University

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove forests1
Mangrove Forests
  • Found in coastal areas all over the tropics
  • Primarily in brackish water
    • salty and fresh mix
  • Cover approximately 22 million hectares in tropical and subtropical coasts

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

ecosystem functions threats
Ecosystem Functions & Threats
  • Serve as an important buffer between sea and land
    • Lessen impact of intense storms
    • Reduce erosion and increase sedimentation
    • Important coastal pioneer species
    • Act as basis for a complex, biologically diverse, and productive ecosystem
  • Increasingly threatened
    • Human development is most intense along coasts

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangroves
Mangroves
  • Not a natural taxonomic group
    • Convergence among several groups
      • Possibly 16 convergent events
    • Based on physiological attributes
    • 54 species total world-wide
      • 16 Families
        • Principally: Avicenniaceae & Rhizophoraceae
        • These two families include 25 spp.
      • 20 Genera

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove location
Mangrove Location
  • Found in tropical areas only
    • Within the 20ºC isocline
    • More southern on East side of continents
      • Due to southward moving warm Equatorial currents there

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

terminology
Terminology
  • Mangal
    • Community of organisms in the mangrove habitat
  • Mangrove
    • Trees that flourish in the mangal
  • Pneumatophore
    • Vertical root structures for air exchange
    • Lenticels - tiny pores for air exchange
    • Aerenchyma – tissue for air storage

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

characteristics of mangal
Characteristics of Mangal
  • Inundation with tides
  • Increasing salinity towards ocean
  • Sandy clay soil
    • Nutrient poor
  • Nitrogen & Phosphorus are limiting
    • Limiting mangrove growth only
  • Organic nutrients deposited via siltation
    • Fresh water streams & down-shore currents
    • Most all are of terrestrial origin
  • In sum: Mangal is a harsh place to live

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove adaptations
Mangrove Adaptations
  • Salt tolerance
    • Sequester in tissue (bark, stem, root)
    • Secrete through leaves
    • Exclusion by negative hydrostatic pressure
  • Frequent inundation
    • Aerenchyma tissue & aerial roots
  • Tolerant of soils low in oxygen
    • Hypoxic or anoxic

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove consequences of adaptations
Mangrove Consequences of Adaptations
  • Greater root mass
    • Relative to rest of plant & relative to non-mangrove species
    • For water exchange & air exchange
  • Lower growth rates
    • Consequence of salt & air exchange
  • Tradeoff between salt tolerance & frequent inundation
    • Can adapt for one or other
    • Not both

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove pollination
Mangrove Pollination
  • Pollination method varies by species
    • Wind (Rhizophora)
    • bat or hawk moth (Sonneratia)
    • birds and butterflies (Bruguiera)
    • bees (Acanthus, Aegiceras, Avicennia, Excoecaria, Xylocarpus)
    • fruit flies (Nypa)
    • other small insects (Ceriops, Kandelia)

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove reproduction
Mangrove Reproduction
  • Vivipary normal
    • Reproduction and growth while still attached to plant
      • Flowering
      • Fertilization
      • Propagule growth

Mature propagule

Young propagule a.k.a. Hypocotyl

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove dispersal
Mangrove Dispersal
  • Maturity -> Drop off maternal plant
  • Float horizontally initially
    • Dispersal to novel environments ideally
  • Float vertically with appropriate environmental conditions
  • Rooting and growth

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangal habitat types from inland to oceanfront
Mangal Habitat Types (from inland to oceanfront)
  • Riverine
    • Often found in river deltas
    • Constant influx of freshwater
    • Great changes in salinity levels
  • Basin Mangroves
    • Inland, behind coastal mangroves
    • Little change in tides, no wave action
    • Often higher salinity than others (evaporation)
  • Tide-Dominated
    • Coastal front habitats
    • Frequent sedimentation
    • Unstable morphology due to coastal erosion

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

intraspecific differences in environmental tolerances
Intraspecific Differences in Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity variations and adaptations for excreting salt
    • Varies within and between species
    • Through growth stages
  • Tidal Inundation and adaptations for gas exchange
    • Pneumatophores and other aerial root extensions
  • Low soil stability, Shore morphology, and adaptations for rooting
    • Prop Roots
  • Sedimentationrates and types

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangrove species zonation

All increase toward shore

Salinity

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

Rhizophora

stylosa

Inundation

Decreasing Soil Stability

Sedimentation Rate

Mangrove Species Zonation

Ceriops

australis

Avicennia marina

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

most common species
Most Common Species
  • Red Mangrove

(Rhizophora mangle)

  • Black Mangrove

(Avicennia germinans)

  • White Mangrove

(Laguncularia racemosa)

    • All are found throughout tropics

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

bark identification
Bark Identification

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

tree characters
Tree Characters

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

pneumatophores
Pneumatophores

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

epiphytes
Epiphytes

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

for more information
For more information
  • Go to http://www.earthisland.org/map/mngec.htm and read the ecology link
  • A clearinghouse on information on mangrove ecology is available at http://www.ncl.ac.uk/tcmweb/tcm/mglinks.htm

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu

mangroves of australia
Mangroves of Australia
  • The mangrove plants of Queensland (from http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/fg-mangroves/pages/fgm-qld-15.html)
    • Listed below are the true mangrove species that grow in Queensland. Hybrid plants are indicated by the use of an x in the scientific name (e.g. Lumnitzera x rosea).
  • AcanthaceaeAcanthus ebracteatus Acanthus ilicifolius
  • ArecaceaeNypa fruticans
  • AvicenniaceaeAvicennia marina
  • BignoniaceaeDolichandrone spathacea
  • BombaceaeCamptostemum schultzii
  • CaesalpiniaceaeCynometra iripa
  • CombretaceaeLumnitzera racemosa, Lumnitzera x rosea, Lumnitzera littorea
  • EbenaceaeDiospyros ferrea
  • EuphorbiaceaeExcoecaria agallocha
  • LythraceaePemphis acidula
  • MeliaceaeXylocarpus granatum
  • MyrsinaceaeXylocarpus mekongensis, Aegiceras corniculatum
  • MyrtaceaeOsbornia octodonta
  • PlumbaginaceaeAegialitis annulata
  • PteridaceaeAcrostichum speciosum
  • RhizophoraceaeBruguiera gymnorrhiza,Bruguiera sexangula, Bruguiera exaristata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops australis, Ceriops decandra, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora x lamarckii, Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora mucronata
  • RubiaceaeScyphiphora hydrophyllacea
  • SonneratiaceaeSonneratia alba, Sonneratia x gulngai, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia lanceolata
  • SterculaceaeHeritiera littoralis

James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, jd363@columbia.edu