Objectives • Identify the functions and sources of nutrition and sources of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. • Identify the functions and sources of vitamins, minerals, water, and herbal supplements. • List and describe the five elements required on all food labels. • Discuss other information found on food labels.
Key Terms • Nutrient • Calorie • Protein • Amino acid • Carbohydrate • Fiber • Vitamin • Mineral • Herbal supplements • Protein supplements
Choosing Healthful Foods • Nutrition • The sum of the processes by which humans, animals, and plants consume and use food. • Nutrient • A substance in food that helps with body processes. • Calories • Energy is measured in calories. • 6 categories of nutrients.
Proteins • A nutrient that is needed for growth, and to build and repair body tissues. • Needed to regulate body processes and to supply energy. • Form part of every cell in your body. • Make up more than 50% of you total body weight. • Skin, nails, hair-mostly protein. • Helps body maintain strength and resist infection. • 1 gram of protein provides 4 calories. • Lack of protein • Stunt growth, affect development of certain tissue, affect mental development. • Excess protein is burned as energy or stored as fat.
Proteins • Two types • Complete proteins • Contains all the essential amino acids. • Amino Acids-The building blocks that make up proteins. • Examples of complete proteins: • Meat • Fish • Poultry • Eggs • Milk • Yogurt
Proteins • Amino Acids • 9 essential amino acids. • Body needs 20 to function properly. • Body can only produce 11. • Essential amino acids • The 9 amino acids that the body cannot produce. • Must come from foods we eat.
Proteins • Incomplete Protein • A protein from plant sources that does not contain all of the essential amino acids. • Three categories • Grains • Whole grains • Pastas • Corn • Legumes • Dried beans • Peas • Lentils • Nuts and seeds • Different plant sources can be combined to obtain all of the essential amino acids your body needs.
Carbohydrates • A nutrient that is the main source of energy for the body. • Includes sugars, starches, and fiber. • Supply 4 calories of energy per gram of food. • Body can store only limited amounts of carbohydrates. • Excess carbohydrates are stored as fat. • Sources • Vegetables • Beans • Potatoes • Pasta • Breads • Rice • Bran • Popcorn • Fruit
Carbohydrates • Two types • Simple carbohydrates • Sugars that enter the bloodstream rapidly and provide quick energy. • Provide calories but few vitamins and minerals. • Sugars • Naturally • Fruits • Honey • Milk • Processed-table sugar • Cakes • Candy • Other sweet desserts. • Ketchup • Spaghetti sauce • Soft drinks
Carbohydrates • Complex carbohydrate • Starches and fibers • Most of the calories in your diet should come from complex carbohydrates. • Sources • Grains • Bread • Pasta • Vegetables • Potatoes • Beans • Turned into glucose during digestive process.
Carbohydrates • Starches • A food substance that is made and stored in most plants. • Provide long lasting energy. • Fiber • The part of grains and plant foods that cannot be digested. • Roughage • Soluble and insoluble • Soluble-associated with reduced levels of cholesterol. • Insoluble-binds with water to help produce bowl movements. • Reduces risk of colon cancer. • Helps move food through the digestive system.
Fats • A nutrient that provides energy and helps the body store and use vitamins. • 1 gram of fat supplies 9 calories of energy. • Supply more than twice the number of calories supplied by proteins and carbohydrates. • Store and transport fat-soluble vitamins. • A,D,E,K • Stored as fat tissue that surrounds and cushions internal organs. • Contribute to the taste and texture of many foods. • Body needs fats to maintain body heat, maintain an energy reserve, and build brain cells and nerve tissues. • No more than 30% of daily caloric intake should come from fat.
Fats • Saturated Fat • Found in dairy products, solid vegetable fat, meat and poultry. • Usually in solid form when at room temperature. • Contribute to the level of cholesterol that is in a person’s blood. • Cholesterol-a fat-like substance make by the body and found in certain foods.
Fats • Unsaturated fats • Obtained from plant products and fish. • Usually liquid at room temperature. • Two types • Polyunsaturated • Sunflower oil • Corn oil • Soybean oil • Monounsaturated • Olive oil • Canola oil
Fats • Trans-fatty acids • Fatty acids that are formed when vegetable oils are processed into solid fats. • Margarine • Shortening. • Process is called hydrogenation • Makes the liquid oils more solid, more stable, less greasy tasting. • Increases the shelf life. • Raise blood cholesterol levels. • “Partially hydrogenated…”
Vitamins • A nutrients that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. • Provide no energy to the body directly. • Help unleash energy stored in carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Vitamins • Two types • Fat-soluble • A vitamin that dissolves in fat and can be stored in the body. • Four • A, D, E, and K • Water-soluble • A vitamin that dissolves in water and cannot be stored by the body in significant amounts. • C and B complex
Minerals • A nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions in the body. • Naturally occurring inorganic substances. • Small amounts of some minerals are essential in metabolism and nutrition.
Minerals • Two types • Macro minerals • Minerals that are required in amounts greater than 100mg. • Calcium • Sodium • Magnesium • Trace minerals • Minerals that are needed in very small amounts. • Iron • Zinc • Just as important to the body as macro minerals.
Herbal Supplements • Supplements that contain extracts or ingredients from the roots, berries, seeds, stems, leaves, buds, or flowers of plants. • Come in many forms. • Tablets • Capsules • Powders • Gelcaps • Liquids • Officially classified as foods, not drugs.
Protein Supplements • Product taken orally that contains proteins that are intended to supplement ones’ diet and are not considered food. • Soy and whey energy drinks or powders. • Belief that these help build muscle.
Water • A nutrient that is involved with all body processes. • Makes up the basic part of the blood. • Helps with waste removal. • Regulates body temperature. • Cushions the spinal cord and joints. • Makes up more than 60% of body mass. • Carries nutrients to all body cells. • Carries waste products from the cells to the kidneys. • Leaves body in the form of perspiration and urine.
Water • Dehydration • a condition in which the water content of the body has fallen to an extremely low level. • Causes • Lack of water intake. • Dry environment. • Fever. • Vomiting. • Diarrhea.
Water • Dehydration • Signs • Fatigue • Dry mouth • Dizziness • Weakness • Flushed skin • Headache • Blurred vision • Difficulty swallowing • Frequent urination • Dry skin • Rapid pulse