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Choosing Healthful Foods

Choosing Healthful Foods

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Choosing Healthful Foods

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  1. Choosing Healthful Foods Unit 5, Lesson 25 National Health Standards 1.1, 2.10, 7.1

  2. Proteins • Nutrient needed for growth, to build and repair body tissue, regulate body processes, supply energy, maintain strength, resist infection • Part of every cell in your body • Make up more than 50% of body weight

  3. Skin, nails, and hair – mostly protein • Each gram of protein provides 4 calories • Deficient – stunt growth, development of some tissues, and mental development • Excess – burned as energy or stored as fat

  4. 2 types of protein • Complete • Contain all essential amino acids – building blocks of protein • Examples – meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggs • Soybean – only plant that provides all 9 essential amino acids

  5. Body needs 20 amino acids • Body can produce 11amino acids • The 9 amino acids the body cannot make are referred to as essential amino acids – must come from foods you eat

  6. Incomplete proteins • Do not contain all essential amino acids • From plant sources • Fall into 3 categories • Grains – whole grains, pastas, and corn • Legumes – dried beans, peas, and lentils • Nuts and seeds

  7. Different plant sources of incomplete proteins can be combined to create a complete protein

  8. Carbohydrates • Main source of energy for the body • Include sugars, starches, and fiber • Supply 4 calories per gram of food • Can store only limited amounts; excess stored as fat

  9. Sources: vegetables, beans, potatoes, pasta, bread, rice, bran, popcorn, and fruit

  10. 2 types of carbohydrates • Simple • Sugars that enter the bloodstream quickly and provide quick energy • Provide calories but no vitamins or minerals • Found naturally in fruits, honey, and milk

  11. Processed sugar or table sugar is added to foods during processing • Examples of processed sugar foods include cakes, candy, other sweet desserts, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, pop

  12. Complex • Starches and fiber • Most calories in diet come from these • Sources include: grains and vegetables

  13. Starch • Food substance made and stored in most plants • Provide long-lasting energy • Glucose • Complex carbohydrates changed by saliva and other digestive juices to glucose • Used by cells to provide energy and heat

  14. Fiber • Part of plant and grain foods that cannot be digested • Also known as roughage • Move food through the system

  15. 2 types • Insoluble – prevent constipation and other intestinal problems by binding with water • Soluble – reduce blood cholesterol level and risk of developing heart disease

  16. Fiber sources: wheat, bran, barley, rye, oats, whole grains, popcorn, brown rice, seeds, fruits, and vegetables

  17. Fats • Provide energy, helps body store and use vitamins • One gram equals 9 calories of energy • Supply more than twice the number of calories supplied by proteins and carbohydrates

  18. Store and transport fat soluble vitamins – A,D, E, and K • Stored as fat tissue that surrounds and cushions internal organs • Contribute to taste and texture

  19. Maintain body heat, energy reserve, build brain cells and nerve tissues • No more than 30% of daily intake should come from fat

  20. Saturated fat • Found in dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultry • Usually solid at room temperature • Contribute to cholesterol level – fat-like substance made by the body and found in certain foods

  21. Dietary cholesterol • Found in foods of animal origins • Combined with cholesterol made by the body make up the blood cholesterol level • Can lower blood cholesterol level by eating fewer saturated fats

  22. Unsaturated fats • Come from plants and fish • Usually liquid at room temperature • 2 types • Polyunsaturated – include sunflower, corn, and soybean oils

  23. Monounsaturated – olive and canola oils • Visible fat – fat you can see on a food • Invisible fat – fat not seen my naked eye – cakes, cookies

  24. Trans-fatty acids • Formed when vegetable oils are processed into solid fats – margarine, shortening • Process of hydrogenation makes liquid oil more solid, more stable and less greasy tasting • Body handles these as saturated fats • Raise blood cholesterol levels

  25. Vitamins • Helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats • Provide no energy, but unleash energy stored in carbohydrates, proteins, and fats • 2 types • Water-soluble • Fat-soluble

  26. Fat-soluble • Dissolves in fat • Can be stored in the body • A, D, E, and K

  27. Water-soluble • Dissolves in water • Cannot be stored in the body • Vitamin C and B complex

  28. Vitamin C • Strengthens blood vessels, strengthens immune system, and aids in iron absorption • Found in citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, and tomatoes

  29. B-complex • B1 – thiamin – necessary for the function of nerves

  30. B2 - riboflavin – helps body use energy

  31. Vitamin B3 – Niacin

  32. B6 – helps the body use fat and takes in protein

  33. B9 – folacin – necessary for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells

  34. B12 – necessary for the formation of red blood cells

  35. Biotin - Vitamin H – necessary for normal metabolism of carbohydrates

  36. B5 - Pantothenic acid – necessary for the production of RNA and DNA

  37. Minerals • Regulate many chemical reactions in the body, essential in metabolism and nutrition • Naturally occurring inorganic substances • Two types: • Macro minerals • Trace minerals

  38. Macro minerals • Required in amounts greater than 100 mg

  39. Calcium – builds up bones and teeth • Magnesium – necessary for chemical reactions during metabolism • Phosphorus – builds bones, teeth, and cells • Potassium – keeps fluids in balance within cells

  40. Sodium – necessary for water balance in cells and tissues and for nerve cell conduction • Sulfur – builds hair, nails, and skin

  41. Trace minerals • Needed in very small amounts

  42. Trace Mineral Food Sources

  43. Herbal Supplements • Supplements containing extracts or ingredients from roots, berries, seeds, stems, leaves, buds, or flowers of plants • Come in many forms • Sold in health food stores, grocery stores, gyms, mail-order catalogs, Internet, and television programs

  44. Officially classified as foods and not as drugs • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 • Means they do not have to be proven safe or screened by the FDA before they are placed on the market

  45. Creatine • An amino acid made in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas • Found naturally in meat and fish • Popular dietary supplement

  46. Under medical supervision • Increase sports performance or way to become more muscular

  47. Protein supplements • Product taken orally that contains proteins that are intended to supplement one’s diet and are not considered food • Build muscle

  48. Soy and whey energy drinks • Most meet or exceed intake daily, so any excess will be converted to fat, not muscle

  49. Water • Involved with all body processes • Makes up the basic part of the blood, helps with waste removal, regulates body temperature, cushions the spinal cord and joints • Makes up 60% of body mass

  50. Carries nutrients to all body cells and waste products from the cells to the kidneys • Leave the body in the form or perspiration and urine