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An Introduction to Organic Compounds

An Introduction to Organic Compounds

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An Introduction to Organic Compounds

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  1. An Introduction to Organic Compounds Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Representation of Structure Chapter 2

  2. Counting to Ten in Organic • 01 = meth Mother • 02 = eth Enjoys • 03 = prop Peanut • 04 = but BUTter • 05 = pent PENTagon • 06 = hex HEXagon or HEX nut • 07 = hept HEPTember (Roman sept is Greek hept) • 08 = oct OCTober • 09 = non NONember (Roman nov is Greek non) • 10 = dec DECember Chapter 2

  3. Alkanes Structures with only single bonds between the carbons Ethane Chapter 2

  4. Alkanes Chapter 2

  5. Properties of alkanes Light and flammable: watch the demo! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIPQpVNG6uk Chapter 2

  6. Alkenes Structures with at least one double bonded carbon pair: Pentene Ethene Chapter 2

  7. Alkynes Structrures with at least one triple bonded carbon pair Ethyne Hexyne Chapter 2

  8. Saturated vs Unsaturated Chapter 2

  9. Polyunsaturated Chapter 2

  10. Cis and Trans Polyunsaturated Chapter 2

  11. IUPAC Systematic Nomenclature - Alkanes • Determine longest continuous chain (i.e. parent hydrocarbon) • Cite the name of substituent before the name of the parent hydrocarbon along with the number of the carbon to which it is attached Chapter 2

  12. IUPAC Systematic Nomenclature - Alkanes • Number in the direction that gives the lower number for the lowest-numbered substituent. Substituents are listed in alphabetical order – neglecting prefixes such as di- tri- tert- etc. Chapter 2

  13. IUPAC Systematic Nomenclature - Alkanes When both directions yield the same lower number for the lowest numbered substituent, select the direction that yields the lower number for the next lowest numbered substituent Chapter 2

  14. IUPAC Systematic Nomenclature - Alkanes • If same substituent numbers are obtained in either direction, number in direction giving lowest number to the first named substituent Chapter 2

  15. IUPAC Systematic Nomenclature - Alkanes • If compound has two or more chains of the same length, parent hydrocarbon is chain with greatest number of substituents Chapter 2

  16. Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • Cycloalkanes generally are shown as skeletal structures Chapter 2

  17. Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • Ring is the parent hydrocarbon unless the alkyl substituent has more carbons; in that case the substituent becomes the parent hydrocarbon • If only one substituent, no need to give it a number Chapter 2

  18. Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • If the ring has 2 substituents, list in alphabetical order and give number 1 to first named group Chapter 2

  19. Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes • If there is more than one substituent, list in alphabetical order; one substituent is given the position number 1; number either clockwise or counterclockwise - lowest numbers Chapter 2

  20. Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides • IUPAC name - The halogen is treated as a substituent Chapter 2

  21. Nomenclature of Ethers • IUPAC name - The smaller alkyl group is converted to an “alkoxy” name and used as a substituent Chapter 2

  22. Nomenclature of Alcohols • IUPAC name - The OH group is a site of reactivity (a functional group) • Functional group is denoted by the suffix, “ol” methanol ethanol Chapter 2

  23. Nomenclature of Amines • IUPAC name - The NH2 group is a site of reactivity (a functional group) • Functional group is denoted by the suffix, “amine” • Final “e” of longest alkane group replaced by suffix “amine” (don’t run vowels together) 1-butanamine butan-1-amine Chapter 2

  24. IUPAC Nomenclature of Amines • Find the longest chain bonded to the nitrogen • Final “e” is replaced with “amine” • Number the carbon to which nitrogen is bonded • Number any substituents on the alkyl chain • Use italicized N- for each additional substituent(s) on the nitrogen Chapter 2

  25. It’s a Family Thing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAjrnZ-znkY Chapter 2