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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Conformations. Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof. Irene Lee, Case Western Reserve University. Conformations of Alkanes: Rotation about Carbon–Carbon Bonds . Conformational Analysis Drawing Acyclic Molecules.

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Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Conformations


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    1. Chapter 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds Conformations Adapted from Profs. Turro & Breslow, Columbia University and Prof.Irene Lee, Case Western Reserve University

    2. Conformations of Alkanes: Rotation about Carbon–Carbon Bonds

    3. Conformational AnalysisDrawingAcyclic Molecules • Newman Projections

    4. Conformational AnalysisDrawingAcyclic Molecules • Sawhorse Drawings

    5. Different Conformations of Ethane • A staggered conformer is more stable than an eclipsed • conformer • Torsional strain: repulsion between pairs of bonding • electrons

    6. Conformations of n-Butane • Steric strain: repulsion between the electron clouds of • atoms or groups

    7. Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain • Angle strain results when bond angles deviate from the • ideal 109.5° bond angle

    8. The Shapes of Cycloalkanes:Planar or Nonplanar?

    9. Adolf von Baeyer (19th century) • Assumed cycloalkanes were planar polygons. • Believed distortion of bond angles from 109.5° gives angle strain to some cycloalkanes. • One for two is great in baseball.

    10. Types of Strain • • Torsional strain strain that results from eclipsed bonds (measure of the dihedral angle) • • Van der Waals strain or (Steric strain) strain that results from atoms being too close together. • • Angle strain results from distortion of bond angles from normal values, for a tetrahedron 109.5o

    11. Measuring Strain in Cycloalkanes • Heats of combustion can be used to comparestabilities of isomers. • But cyclopropane, cyclobutane, etc. are not isomers. • All heats of combustion increase as the numberof carbon atoms increase.

    12. Measuring Strain in Cycloalkanes • Therefore, divide heats of combustion by number of carbons and compare heats of combustion on a "per CH2 group" basis.

    13. Heats of Combustion in Cycloalkanes • Cycloalkane kJ/mol Per CH2 • Cyclopropane 2,091 697 • Cyclobutane 2,721 681 • Cyclopentane 3,291 658 • Cyclohexane 3,920 653 • Cycloheptane 4,599 657 • Cyclooctane 5,267 658 • Cyclononane 5,933 659 • Cyclodecane 6,587 659

    14. Heats of Combustion in Cycloalkanes • Cycloalkane kJ/mol Per CH2 • According to Baeyer, cyclopentane should • have less angle strain than cyclohexane. • Cyclopentane 3,291 658 • Cyclohexane 3,920 653 • The heat of combustion per CH2 group is • less for cyclohexane than for cyclopentane. • Therefore, cyclohexane has less strain than • cyclopentane.

    15. Conformations of Cyclohexane • Heat of combustion suggests that angle strain is unimportant in cyclohexane. • Tetrahedral bond angles require nonplanar geometries. • The chair and boat conformations.

    16. The chair conformation of cyclohexane is free of strain

    17. Chair is the most stable conformation of cyclohexane • All of the bonds are staggered and the bond angles at carbon are close to tetrahedral.

    18. Boat conformation is less stable than the chair 180 pm • All of the bond angles are close to tetrahedral but close contact between flagpole hydrogens causes strain in boat.

    19. Boat conformation is less stable than the chair • Eclipsed bonds bonds gives torsional strain to boat.

    20. Skew boat is slightly more stable than boat Boat • Less van der Waals strain and less torsional strain in skew boat. Skew or Twist Boat

    21. Generalization • The chair conformation of cyclohexane is themost stable conformation and derivativesof cyclohexane almost always exist in the chair conformation

    22. Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane

    23. Drawing Cyclohexane

    24. The 12 bonds to the ring can be divided into two sets of 6.

    25. 6 Bonds are axial Axial bonds point "north and south"

    26. The 12 bonds to the ring can be divided into two sets of 6.

    27. 6 Bonds are equatorial Equatorial bonds lie along the equator

    28. Conformational Inversion(Ring-Flipping) in Cyclohexane

    29. Conformational Inversion • chair-chair interconversion (ring-flipping) • rapid process (activation energy = 45 kJ/mol) • all axial bonds become equatorial and vice versa

    30. Half-chair

    31. Half-chair Skewboat

    32. Half-chair Skewboat

    33. Half-chair Skewboat

    34. 45 kJ/mol 45 kJ/mol 23 kJ/mol

    35. The Conformations of Cyclohexane and Their Energies

    36. Conformational Analysis of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes • most stable conformation is chair • substituent is more stable when equatorial

    37. Steric Strain of 1,3-Diaxial Interaction in Methylcyclohexane

    38. CH3 CH3 Methylcyclohexane axial • Chair chair interconversion occurs, but at any instant 95% of the molecules have their methyl group equatorial. • An axial methyl group is more crowded than an equatorial one. equatorial 5% 95%

    39. Is this the most stable conformer?

    40. Methylcyclohexane • Hydrogen atoms closer than 2.4 Angstroms will cause steric strain. • This is called a "1,3-diaxial repulsion" a type of van der Waals strain or Steric strain. 5% 95%

    41. Fluorocyclohexane F • Crowding is less pronounced with a "small" substituent such as fluorine. • Size of substituent is related to its branching. F 40% 60%

    42. C(CH3)3 C(CH3)3 tert-Butylcyclohexane • Crowding is more pronounced with a "bulky" substituent such as tert-butyl. • tert-Butyl is highly branched. Less than 0.01% Greater than 99.99%

    43. tert-Butylcyclohexane van der Waalsstrain due to1,3-diaxialrepulsions

    44. The larger the substituent on a cyclohexane ring, the • more the equatorial substituted conformer will be • favored Keq = [equatorial conformer]/[axial conformer]

    45. Disubstituted CyclohexanesCis-trans Isomerism

    46. Cyclic Alkanes StereochemistryCis -Trans Isomers

    47. The Chair Conformers of cis-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane

    48. 1,2-disubstituted-cis-cyclohexaneStereochemistry axial equatorial