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Fundamentals of Geographic Data

Fundamentals of Geographic Data. James STEWART MEASURE Evaluation 15 février 2010 Suivi et Evaluation des programmes VIH/SIDA- Séminaire régional CESAG - Dakar, Sénégal .

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Fundamentals of Geographic Data

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  1. Fundamentals ofGeographic Data James STEWART MEASURE Evaluation 15 février 2010 Suivi et Evaluation des programmes VIH/SIDA- Séminaire régional CESAG - Dakar, Sénégal 

  2. MEASURE Evaluation is funded by USAID through Cooperative Agreement GHA-A-00-08-00003-00 and is implemented by the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in partnership with Futures Group International, John Snow, Inc., Macro International Inc., Management Sciences for Health, and Tulane University. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States government. Visitez-nous en ligneà http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure.

  3. General Objective The general objective of the module « Fundamentals of Geographic Data » is to present the fundamentals of geographic data, including the relationship between geographic and attribute data, and to help participants understand some important data quality considerations.

  4. Session Plan • Coordinate systems and datums • Geographic data • Geographic identifiers • Data schema best practices

  5. Geographic Identifiers

  6. Geographic Identifiers • GPS coordinate • Administrative name • In reference to other features

  7. Geography basics

  8. Latitude/Longitude

  9. Taj Mahal: 27.17 Latitude 78.04 Longitude

  10. GPS Coordinate Global Positioning System

  11. GPS Coordinates Advantages Disadvantages If many objects need to be located, there needs to be a well designed data collection protocol Capturing something other than a point can add time and cost • Very accurate: • 10 meters or less • Easy to get a quick location of a few objects • Receivers and devices becoming more affordable

  12. GPS Coordinate • Best practice: • Display as latitude/longitude coordinate • Example: 36.05576 078.91376

  13. Geographic Identifiers • Administrative division names or codes • Regions, provinces, districts, communes • Human settlement names or codes • Cities, villages, neighborhoods, informal settlements • Exact locations • Street addresses, GPS coordinates

  14. Geographic Identifiers: Administrative Divisions Kenyan Geographic Hierarchy for 1999 Census Source: Odhiambo, Emma. “Census Cartography: The Kenyan Experience,” presented at the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Contemporary Practices in Census Mapping and Use of Geographical Information Systems, 29th May – 1st June 2007, New York.

  15. Acknowledgments: USAID, FEWS, EDC- International Program, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Source: Administrative boundaries downloaded October 2008 from http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/povertymapping/.

  17. Geographic Identifiers:Human Settlements • Cities • Towns • Villages • Neighborhoods • Communities • Informal settlements

  18. Geographic Identifiers • Anything that helps uniquely identify where something is

  19. Data Schema Best Practices

  20. Data Schema Best Practices:Data Dictionary

  21. Data Schema Best Practices:Data Dictionary

  22. Data Schema Best Practices:Data Dictionary

  23. Data Schema Best Practices:Data Dictionary

  24. Data Schema Best Practices:Example

  25. Data Schema Best Practices:Example

  26. Data Schema Best Practices:Example

  27. Data Schema Best Practices:Summary • Use a data dictionary • Always include geographic identifiers • Require one record per row, one value per cell • Avoid missing values

  28. Data Schema Best Practices:Summary • Related Assumptions • Data stored in electronic format • Paper-based records inhibit analysis • Data stored in spreadsheet or database • Word processing and PDF documents inhibit analysis

  29. Data Schema Best Practices:Summary • Good Data Schema • Results in higher quality data • Facilitates linking and sharing of data • Strengthens the data infrastructure • Improves the decision-making process

  30. MERCI

  31. Discussion Questions • What geographic identifiers do you use in your country, and do they work well for the types of decisions you need to make? • What problems have you run into, if any? • Do you always include these geographic identifiers in your data?

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