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Human Visual Systems and Perception. C. Edward Chow. Image in Human Eye. Rod and Cone Cell Distribution. Contrast Illusion . Demystify Illusion with Mach Bend Effect. Spatial Frequencies. Image can be considered as superposition of gratings of different spatial frequencies (cycles/degree).

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spatial frequencies
Spatial Frequencies
  • Image can be considered as superposition of gratings of different spatial frequencies (cycles/degree).


visual acuity
Visual Acuity
  • Visual acuity: the smallest angular separation at which the individual lines can be distinguished.
  • Depend on contrast ratio and keenness of your eyes. 1.7’ is normal assumption= 60/(2*1.7’)~18 cycles/degree


tristimulus curves
Tristimulus Curves
  • Devise a system with simple numbers to represents all colors. (How about all positive numbers?)
  • x,y,z are proportion of X primary, Y primary, Z primary (supersaturated red, green and blue)
  • x=X/(X+Y+Z); y=Y /(X+Y+Z); z=1-x-y


cie x y z system
CIE {X,Y,Z} system
  • CIE: Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage, The International commission on color standards)
  • Figure 2.17b shows the corresponding amount of primaries needed to match all wavelengths of visible spectrum.