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Abdominal Cavity II. Spleen . a. hilum b. diaphragmatic surface: upper, posterior c. visceral surface: = gastric, renal, & colic faces . Stomach . a. lesser curvature - upper, right, inside border b. greater curvature - left, inferior, outer border c. regions:

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spleen
Spleen
  • a. hilum
  • b. diaphragmatic surface: upper, posterior
  • c. visceral surface: = gastric, renal, & colic faces
stomach
Stomach
  • a. lesser curvature - upper, right, inside border
  • b. greater curvature - left, inferior, outer border
  • c. regions:
    • cardia (& cardiac notch, angel by esophagus and stomach, close to the heart)
    • fundus - upward curving
    • body (& angular notch - marks border with pylorus)
    • pylorus - antrum, then canal, then sphincter & orifice
    • rugae - folds in mucous membrane
small intestine
Small intestine
  • Duodenum: 1st segment (~25 cm long)
  • is partially retroperitoneal
  • regions: - superior - begins at pylorus; descending; horizontal; ascending - supplied by superior, inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
small intestine1
Small intestine
  • Jejunum: second segment - with ileum, supplied by superior mesenteric artery
    • begins at duodenojejunal flexure
    • attaches to diaphragm by suspensory muscle of duodenum
    • border with ileum is gradual, arbitrary, jejunum = proximal 40%
    • thicker walls
    • larger, more dense plicae circularis (circular mucosal folds)
small intestine2
Small intestine
  • Ileum: Third segment of small intestine - with jejunum, fills umbilical & pubic region
    • ileum = distal 60% of continuous section from jejunum to colon
    • thinner walls; few plicae circularis
    • ileocecal valve, orifice - between ileum & cecum
large intestine
Large intestine
  • Cecum: First , blind segment, attached to post wall by mesocecum- vermiform appendix - process extending from cecum; attached by mesoappendix
large intestine1
Large intestine
  • Ascending colon: Right side, inguinal & lateral regions
  • Transverse colon: starts at right colic (hepatic) flexure, ends at left colic /splenic flexure
    • right end has no mesentery, comes in contact with right kidney & part of duodenum
  • Descending colon: Left lateral to inguinal region, retroperitoneal
  • Sigmoid colon: Left inguinal, curves, enters lower pelvis; supported by sigmoid mesocolon
large intestine2
Large intestine
  • taeniae coli - 3 longitudinal muscle bands (instead of continuous layer as in small intestine)
  • haustra - out pouching sections of colon between teniae coli
  • epiploic appendages - colon’s visceral peritoneum forms little pockets that hold fat
pancreas
Pancreas
  • just superior to transverse mesocolon, enclosed within C - curve of duodenum
  • elongated: head tucked into curvature of duodenum; then neck, body, tail extend left to spleen - anterior surface faces posterior surface of stomach
  • main pancreatic duct - receives smaller side ducts - grayish white, close to post surface
    • joins common bile duct to enter duodenum
    • accessory pancreatic duct - smaller, runs more vertically in head of pancreas and open into duodenal
  • hepatopancreatic ampulla, sphincter - dilated area as common bile duct & pancreatic duct enter duodenal
  • supplied by pancreatic branches of the splenic artery
kidneys
Kidneys
  • Kidneys - retroperitoneal
    • Left kidney: contacts pancreas, spleen, post stomach
    • Right kidney: contacts descending duodenum, liver, & (directly) the hepatic flexure
  • hilum - entry / exit area for ureter, renal blood & lymphatic vessels
  • cortex - outer rim
  • medulla: renal pyramids (=many nephrons); separated by columns, narrow to papillae
  • renal pelvis - fills renal sinus (cavity)
    • formed by several major calyces
    • smaller branches = minor calyces - each collects from a single papillae
suprarenal glands
Suprarenal glands
  • also retroperitoneal
  • Left suprarenal: contacts diaphragm & post surface of stomach (behind peritoneum)
  • Right suprarenal: contacts diaphragm, liver & inferior vana cava - each has cortex, medulla