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Goal #2 Expansion. How did the forces of expansion impact the nation 1801-1850?. Expansion is……. Process of enlargement Process of increasing, or increasing something in size, extent, scope, or number

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  • Process of enlargement

  • Process of increasing, or increasing something in size, extent, scope, or number

  • Growth by land acquisition: the increase of a country’s size by the acquisition of new territory

Squatter term Manifest Destiny

The preemption act of 1830
The Preemption Act of 1830 river bottom and fertile woodlands

  • Under pressure Congress passed the Preemption Act in 1830 river bottom and fertile woodlands

  • A renewable law made permanent in 1841

  • The law granted protection to squatters

  • Allowed them the right to claim land before it was surveyed and the right to buy up to 160 acres for $1.25 an acre

Jethro wood and john deere
Jethro river bottom and fertile woodlands Wood and John Deere

Cyrus mccormick
Cyrus McCormick of the Mid-West

The division of oregon
The Division of Oregon of the Mid-West

The impact of missionaries on oregon
The impact of missionaries on Oregon claimed parts of Oregon and California

  • 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain Native Americans

  • Mexico controlled a large geographic area, including California

  • California far from the center of government in Mexico City

  • Local California government encouraged foreign settlement, could not attract emigrants from Mexico

  • 1839, to attract more settlers Governor Alvarado granted 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • Sutter built a trading post and cattle ranch

  • Sutter’s Fort the first stopping point for Americans when they reached California

  • 1845, 200 plus Americans settled in California

Trails west
Trails West 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • The trails west started in the East and were very dangerous 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • The first trailblazers were “mountain men”, Kit Carson and Jim Bridger who trapped beaver in the Rocky Mountains, had knowledge of the territory and the Native Americans

  • 1840s, the mountain men found or created several passages through the mountains that would play and important role in the settlement of the west

  • The most popular routes 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

    • The Oregon Trail

    • The California Trail

    • The Santa Fe Trail

    • The Mormon Trail

Wagon trains
Wagon Trains 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • The journey West made in covered wagons 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • Prior to the start of the journey, the wagon trains assembled at staging areas outside of frontier towns

  • Families traded information about the routes, bought supplies, trained oxen, and learned how to handle the wagons that were prone to roll over

  • First wagon trains hired mountain men as guides 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • After the trails were well worn, overlanders used guide books written by earlier migrants

  • On occasion the information in the books were incorrect

  • 1846 Donner Party was trapped in the Sierra Nevada Mountains due to snow

  • 41 died of starvation 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • Some that survived resorted to cannibalism

  • The trip West took 5-6 months

  • Covered about 15 miles a day

  • Men drove the wagons, hunted game, cared for the animals at night

  • Women tended the children, cooked, cleaned and washed clothes

Migrating settlers and native americans
Migrating Settlers and Native Americans 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • Early settlers feared Indian attack 50,000 acres to a German immigrant, John Sutter

  • Encounters with Native Americans rare

  • Between 1840-1860, 362 emigrants died at the hands of Native Americans and emigrants killed 426 Native Americans

  • Native Americans often provided emigrants with food, information about routes, edible plants , and water sources

  • More settlers cross the Great Plains, Native Americans saw immigration as a threat to their way of life

  • The Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and other tribes depended on the buffalo for food, clothing, shelter, and tools

  • Native Americans afraid the flow of settlers across hunting grounds would disrupt the migration patterns of the buffalo herds

The treaty of fort laramie 1851
The Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851 immigration as a threat to their way of life

  • In order to bring peace in the West the government negotiated the Treaty of Ft. Laramie

  • Eight Native American tribes agreed to specific geographic boundaries

  • The government of the United States promised that these territories would belong to the Native Americans permanently

The mormon migration
The Mormon Migration negotiated the Treaty of Ft. Laramie

  • The Mormons headed West to escape religious persecution negotiated the Treaty of Ft. Laramie

  • In effect they left the United States

  • 1844, after the murder of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young led his people West

  • Several thousand Mormons forged a path, became known as the Mormon Trail, a valuable trail West

  • July 1821, Stephen Austin leaves Louisiana for Texas day Utah

  • The Spanish government promised a large tract of land to Moses Austin if he brought 300 American families

  • Moses Austin died before he reached Texas

  • Texas, part of the Spanish Empire

  • Mexican Independence in 1821, Texas under Mexican control

  • Tejanos day Utah, Spanish speaking inhabitants lived in settlements of San Antonio de Bexar and Hidalgo in Southern Texas

  • Few lived north of the settlements

  • Northern region inhabited by the Apache, Comanche and other Native American tribes

  • In order to settle the area, Mexico invited Americans and other foreigners to settle areas near the Native Americans

  • Most came due to efforts by day Utahempresarios(agents or contractors)

  • The National Colonization Act granted 26 empresarios large land grants in Texas

  • Had to fill land with specific number of settlers

  • Plots of land were assigned to each family

  • Empresarios governed the colonies they established

  • American immigrants accepted Mexican citizenship day Utah

  • Did not accept Mexican customs nor see Mexico as their own country

  • Spanish Catholic Church was strange to them

  • Most did not attempt to learn Spanish

  • Mexicans did not trust American immigrants because of their lifestyle and dismissal of Mexican ways

  • 1826, day Utahempresario Haden Edwards’ brother Benjamin Edwards led a rebellion against the Mexican authority

  • Disagreement over who controlled the area, the empresiaro or the Mexican government

  • Edwards declared the American settlements in Texas made up the independent nation of Fredonia

  • The revolt had little support day Utah

  • Stephen Austin led troops that allowed Mexico to put down the revolt

  • Few settlers answered the call for revolt

  • Mexican government was afraid the revolt signaled an American plot to take Texas

  • 1830, Mexico banned immigration of Americans

  • Banned the importation of slave labor day Utah

  • Mexico taxed imported goods, to discourage trade with the United States

  • New laws angered settlers

  • No immigration, settlements could not grow

  • Import tax, goods cost more that were purchased from the United States

  • The Mexican government was telling the settlers what they could or could not do

Texan requests
Texan Requests government they did not accept as their own

  • Created a constitution for the new state 1832 and 1833

  • Sent Austin to Mexico City to talk with the Mexican government

  • Fall of 1833 the talks stop

  • Austin sent a letter to the Tejano leaders in San Antonio, suggesting the peaceful formation of their own state

  • The Mexican authorities intercepted the letter

Santa anna
Santa Anna ban on immigration

Problems for the mexican army
Problems for the Mexican Army ban on immigration

Battle of gonzales
Battle of Gonzales ban on immigration

  • First Texan victory was at Gonzales ban on immigration

  • 75 miles east of San Antonio

  • Mexican soldiers ordered Texans to surrender their arms

  • Texans pointed a cannon at the Mexicans and told them to come and take them

  • No orders to attack, Mexicans retreat to San Antonio

  • 350 Texans followed ban on immigration

  • Drove a larger Mexican force out of San Antonio in December 1835

Sam houston
Sam Houston ban on immigration

  • Texans had their own problems ban on immigration

  • Few with military training

  • No agreement on leadership

  • Sam Houston took command

  • Santa Anna had a force of 6,000 troops to put down the rebellion

The alamo
The Alamo ban on immigration

  • Santa Anna’s forces found 180 rebels in an abandoned Spanish mission in San Antonio (the Alamo)

  • Feb. 1836

  • Texans commanded by William B. Travis

  • The Texans were to slow Santa Anna so that Houston could prepare his forces

  • Travis sent a call for reinforcements, on 32 settlers from Gonzales made it to the Alamo

  • Low on ammunition and gun powder Spanish mission in San Antonio (the Alamo)

  • The Texans held off Santa Anna’s army for 13 days

  • During the fighting at the Alamo the Texas government met at Washington on the Brazos and made a formal declaration of war with Mexico

  • March 6, 1836, the Mexican troops took the Alamo

Goliad before being overrun

  • Two weeks after the Alamo the Mexican army defeated Texan troops led by James W. Fannin at Goliad

  • Fannin and his men surrendered

  • Santa Anna ordered them executed

  • Dawn March 27, 1836 300 Texans executed by firing squad

  • Losses at the Alamo and Goliad hurt the Texans but united them behind their new country

The battle of san jacinto
The Battle of San Jacinto troops led by James W.

  • Santa Anna held little fear of the Texans, let his troops sleep in the afternoon

  • Houston’s men convinced him to attack

  • Used a hill to hide their movements, the Texans crept up on the sleeping Mexican army

  • Surprise attack threw the Mexican army into a panic

  • The battle lasted 20 minutes, the killing lasted for hours

  • Calls of Remember the Alamo and Remember Goliad, the Texans attacked with guns, knives, and clubs

  • Killed hundreds and took 700 prisoner

  • Texans had 9 killed and 34 wounded

  • Captured Santa Anna

  • Houston forced Santa Anna to order his army back to Mexico and recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas

The republic of texas
The Republic of Texas attacked with guns, knives, and clubs

Us response to the request to annex texas
US response to the request to annex Texas attacked with guns, knives, and clubs

  • Northern members of Congress opposed to admitting Texas as a slave state

  • President Jackson did not want to inflame tensions between the North and the South

  • Did not want war with Mexico, which still claimed Texas

  • Jackson made no move to annex

  • Jackson on his last day in office did sign a resolution officially recognizing Texas as an independent nation

President tyler and annexation
President Tyler and annexation had been territorial disputes with Mexico/Spain

  • Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas, considered it Mexican Territory

  • 1844, Tyler brought annexation to the Senate

  • Sec. of State John C. Calhoun had written a letter defending slavery that was among the annexation documents

  • Northerners in the Senate used the letter to support the claim that annexation was a proslavery plot, vote of 35-16 the Senate rejected annexation

Election of 1844
Election of 1844 considered it Mexican Territory

  • Early leaders in the race for the presidency Whig Henry Clay, Democrat Martin Van Buren

  • Both asked position on annexation, both declined to take a position in fear of losing support

  • Van Buren lost the nomination for the Democrats to James K. Polk

  • Polk promised to annex Texas and the Oregon Territory

  • Also to buy California from Mexico Clay, Democrat Martin Van Buren

  • This promise appealed to northerners and southerners

  • Expand the nation and keep the balanced between free and slave states

  • Polk’s stand made Clay reverse his statement against annexation, now supported annexation if done without war with Mexico

54 40 or fight
54-40 or Fight Party, abolitionist third party

  • Polk took a strong stand on Oregon Party, abolitionist third party

  • British had claims in Oregon

  • According to Polk “the US has a clear and unquestionable right to it”

  • Polk supporters, 54-40 or fight, wanted all of Oregon to the line 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude

  • June 1846, Great Britain and US agree to a division, US got all land south of 49 degrees north latitude except for the southern tip of Vancouver Island

Annexation of texas
Annexation of Texas Party, abolitionist third party

  • Tyler pushed an annexation resolution through Congress before Polk took office

  • Feb., 1845- Texas a state

  • The resolution needed only a simple majority of both houses of Congress instead of a 2/3rds majority in the Senate to ratify a treaty

  • Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the US

John slidell
John Slidell before Polk took office

Polk starts the war
Polk starts the war before Polk took office

  • By not meeting with Slidell it appeared there was no way to resolve the disagreement peacefully

  • Polk ordered Zachery Taylor to take troops across the Nueces River

  • Mexico saw action as an invasion

  • Polk wanted Mexico to fire the first shots

  • He then could claim Mexico the aggressor and get popular support for the war

  • May 9, 1846 Polk learned a Mexican force had attacked Taylor’s men

  • Polk addressed Congress, declared the US was at war with Mexico, by an act of Mexico itself

  • To get public support, claimed American blood shed on American soil

  • Whigs opposed the war, saw it as way to extend slavery

Us military strategy
US military strategy US was committed to war

  • For the plan to work needed larger army Rio Grande near the Gulf of Mexico

  • Congress gave Polk the authority to call for 50,000 volunteers, about 73,000 volunteered

  • Undisciplined, unruly, not the best soliders

Taylor and the war
Taylor and the War Rio Grande near the Gulf of Mexico

Kearny and the war
Kearny and the War Taylor defeated Mexican forces at:

Bear flag republic
Bear Flag Republic Leavenworth, west of Missouri headed for Santa Fe

  • Before Kearny and his forces reached California and war officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

  • Mexican presence in the territory never very great, settlers little difficulty overcoming it

  • June, 14, 1846 they declared California independent

  • Named it the Bear Flag Republic officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

  • Shortly the Bear Flag Republic ended when US naval forces occupied San Francisco and San Diego

  • Took possession of California for the US

Winfield scott and the war
Winfield Scott and the War officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

  • War was going as Polk planned officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

  • To end war needed to take Mexico City

  • Sent soldiers by ship to Vera Cruz, march west take the city

  • Replaced Taylor with General Winfield Scott

  • Afraid Taylor would challenge Polk in 1848 election

  • By September 14, 1846 Scott captured Mexico City

The treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially declared settlers in Northern California led by John C. Fremont revolted

  • After the fall of Mexico City the Mexican leaders no choice but to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848

  • Mexico ceded the US 500,000 square miles of territory:

    • California

    • Utah

    • Nevada

    • Parts of Colorado and Wyoming

    • The Rio Grande was established as the southern border of Texas

  • US paid Mexico $15 million and took over $3.25 million in debts from the Mexican government owed US citizens

  • Oregon and former Mexican territories under US control

  • Manifest Destiny complete

  • US stretched from ocean to ocean

  • New ports on the west coast opened the US to Pacific and Asian nations

49ners the US into another conflict

Wilmot proviso
Wilmot Proviso Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California

  • An amendment to a military spending bill by Representative David Wilmot

  • The amendment stated that there would be no slavery in any area acquired from the Mexican Cession

  • The Proviso failed to pass but did illustrate the division within Congress and the nation in regards to the expansion of slavery