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  1. Review The Urinary System

  2. Review • Name the three main functions of the urinary system? • Excretion, secretion, elimination • The first process in the formation of urine is? • Filtration • The term meaning the emptying of urine from the bladder? • Elimination • The major work of the urinary system is performed by two organs called? • The kidneys • This is a tube and is for removal of fluids including semen from the body? • Urethra • These are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder? • Ureters • This is an organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys? • Bladder

  3. Review • What kidney sits slightly higher then the other? • Left • The outer layer of the kidney is called? • Cortex • The inner layer of the kidney is called? • Medulla • These are the microscopic units of the kidneys, each kidney has over 1 million of these? • Nephrons • This is where the urine collects before entering the ureters? • The renal pelvis of the kidney • About how much urine is eliminated each day(normal adult)? • 800 to 2000 ml/day

  4. Review • Name some chemicals that we reabsorb by the by the way of the nephrons into the bloodstream? • Glucose, vitamins and salts • What chemical spills over into the urine when a patient has diabetes? • Glucose spills into the expelled urine • Name the medical term for this? • Spilling over the threshold

  5. Review • The medical term for low output of urine? • Oliguria • This is contraction and relaxation of muscles that move the urine down the ureters to enter the posterior wall of the bladder? • Peristalsis • Name the differences in the female and male urethra? • In the female, it is a straight tube about 1 ½ inches in length, in the male, the urethra, is about 8 inches • This is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is used primarily to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal(kidney) failure? • Dialysis

  6. Review • This needs to be done for a patient with end-stage renal disease(last resort)? • Kidney Transplant • This test is used for kidney function, the patient collects all urinary output, from a specified hour one day until the same time the next day? • 24 hour urine test • This is a noninvasive procedure used to assess the size, shape, and location of the kidneys? • Renal ultrasound

  7. Review • This is a invasive special xray for the examination of the kidneys, bladder, and ureters, involves an inject with iodine-based contrast (dye) into a vein in the arm? • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) • This is a minimally invasive test that uses a special x-ray technology called fluoroscopy to visualize your child's urinary tract and bladder, for the diagnosis of urinary reflux? • Voiding cystourethrogram(VCUG)

  8. Review • This is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder? • Cystitis • What is the main cause for cystitis? • Bacterial infection, escherichia coli(e-coli) • This is an inflammation of the glomerulus of the nephron? • Glomerulonephritis • This is the medical term for an uncontrollable loss of urine? • Incontinence

  9. Review • This is an inherited disorder, this affects the kidney with grapelike clusters of fluid filled cysts the replace normal renal tissue of the kidneys? • Polycystic disease • This is the medical term for the most common kidney infection, this is caused by bacteria typically spread from the bladder up the ureters and into the kidneys? • Pyelonephritis • This is the medical term for kidney stones? • Renal Calculi • This is a critical illness that results in the sudden cessation of the kidney function? • Renal failure