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African American History

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  1. African American History

  2. I. Southern Cotton Kingdom A. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • Area south of PA and north of SC and east of the Appalachian Mts. was known as the_____________. • By 1850 the population shifted inland and south to the area known as the ___________. • 3. After 1800 – main crop of Southern States was _______. Upper South Deep South cotton

  3. Cotton Gin enslaved • * Value of _________ people greater because they’re needed to harvest cotton and sugar cane. • a. ___________ aids production from field to northern mills. B. Industry in the South 1. Region predominantly ________. 2. Capital used to invest in ______________. 3. Large percent of population were _______ with no impact on local economies. 4. The Tredegar Iron Works of ________________was a leading producer of iron. rural land, slaves slaves Richmond, Virginia

  4. 5. The three largest cities were: _________________,________________________, _____________________. Baltimore, Maryland Charleston, South Carolina New Orleans, Louisiana 6. Development of cotton in the West led to the new states of: ____________________________. Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas Natural waterways • a.__________________ were the major source of transportation. • b. By _____ only one-third of U.S. ________ lie within the South. 1860 rail lines II. Life in the South A. Life on the Small Farms

  5. yeomen Tenant farmers a. Farmers without slaves were known as _________ and generally grew crops both for their own use and to sell or trade. b. ______________ rented land or worked on landlords’ estates. B. Plantations • a. About 12 percent of Southern plantation owners held more than _____ of the enslaved workers, while about half of the planters held fewer than five enslaved workers. • b. To receive the best prices, planters often sold their cotton to agents of cotton ___________. half exchanges

  6. i. The agents extended ______ to the planters and held the cotton until prices rose. credit ii. This system kept planters in ______ because they did not receive payment until the agents sold the cotton. debt • c. Plantation wives were generally in charge of ____________________________, tending them when they were ill, and supervising the plantation’s buildings and fruit and vegetable gardens. • d. Enslaved people did many kinds of work on a plantation, but most were ___________. watching over enslaved workers field hands

  7. C. City Life and Education • With the coming of the _________, many cities began to grow as centers of trade. • b. Cities provided free African Americans the opportunity to form their own _____________. railroads c. Those who could afford it often sent their children to ______________. d. Even when _____________ were established, many children did not attend because of the great distances to travel. communities private schools public schools

  8. III. The Peculiar Institution A. Life Under Slavery • 1. Family Life – early 1800’s • U.S. law did not protect _________ families. • 1.__________ between slaves wasn’t recognized. enslaved marriage 2. Providing ________ was a ________ of relatives and friends creating an______________. stability network extended family

  9. 2. African American Culture a. ______ Congress outlawed the ___________. 1808 slave trade b. Native born African Americans continued to practice their culture. 3. African American Christianity a. A religion of ____________________. i. _________ gave them an outlet for their passionate beliefs and allowed them to ____________ with one another. hope and resistance Spirituals communicate B. Resisting Slavery 1. ____________ in Southern states were created to prevent rebellion. Slave Codes

  10. a. Violent rebellion by _________ led to stricter codes after 1831.b. Many other rebellions failed. Nat Turner C. Escaping Slavery 1. _______________ and __________________both escaped slavery to freedom in the North. Harriet Tubman Frederick Douglass Fugitive slaves • ______________ risked capture and return. • 3. Ultimate freedom was ________ where slavery was outlawed in _____. Canada 1834

  11. IV. Abolitionists A. Early Efforts to End Slavery 1. _____________________ a white man and __________________, an escaped slave – were two well known abolitionists who sought to end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Benjamin Lundy • 2. Men like _______________, a Quaker, spread their antislavery message through newspapers. • 3. American ___________ _______ Colonization Society 1816 • Formed in ______ to purchase slaves to send them _______ to start new lives. • Created the African nation of ________ along the west coast. abroad Liberia

  12. Place of freedom halt freedom 1. Its name means “________________.” 2. Failed to _____ the growth of slavery iii. Most African Americans wanted _________ in American society. B. The New Abolitionists (after _____) 1830 • William Lloyd Garrison founded “____________” his well known newspaper in 1831. • i. The ___________________ he started numbered more than _____________by 1838. • 2._________________________ were among the first women who spoke out. • i. Angelina’s husband, Theodore Weld wrote American Slavery As It Is in 1839. The Liberator antislavery societies 1,000 chapters Sarah and Angelina Grimke

  13. Freedom’s Journal convention Philadelphia 3. _________________ was the first African American newspaper. 4. 1830 first abolitionist ___________ of free African Americans – held in ____________. 5. Escaped slave __________________ published the __________. 6. _______________ an excellent speaker, dedicated her life to ending slavery and working for women’s rights. Frederick Douglass “North Star” Sojourner Truth • The ___________ _______ aided escaped slaves. • 1. The ___________________ of 1850 required escaped slaves be returned to their owners. Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave Act

  14. Slave hunters a. _______________ worked to return escaped slaves.2. Harriet Tubman was known as the “______________________” because of her work on the Underground Railroad. Moses of her people V. Slavery and the West A. The Missouri Compromise • Missouri was admitted to the Union as a _______ state. • b. Maine was admitted as a ______ state. slave free

  15. B. Nullification Alien & Sedition Acts a. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798-1799 declared that the Federalists’ ______________________ (laws) were unconstitutional. b. The nullification issue was raised again in the 1820s and 1830s by Southerners over the issue of protective _________. tariffs South Carolina 1. In 1832 ________________ voted for an Ordinance of Nullification against Congress’s newly passed tariff. John C. Calhoun of SC 2. In an 1833 compromise, the tariff was __________ and the Ordinance of Nullification withdrawn. lowered

  16. C. New Western Lands Texas a. _______, where slavery existed, became a state in 1845. b. The _________________ specified that slavery should be prohibited in any lands acquired from Mexico. Wilmot Proviso John C. Calhoun c. __________________ believed that government could not ban or regulate slavery. Free Soil Party d. The ________________ was born out of the failure of the Democratic and Whig 1848 presidential candidates to take a stand on slavery.  1848 Presidential Campaign Poster- Free Soil Party –Candidates: Martin VanBuren & Charles Adams

  17. D. The Search for Compromise California a. ___________ would be admitted as a free state. b. The New Mexico territory would have no restrictions on _________. slavery c. The New Mexico-Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of______________. New Mexico d. The slave trade, but not slavery itself, would be abolished in the _____________________. District of Columbia fugitive e. A stronger _________ slave law would be enacted. The End!