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A Challenge:Modeling the Dynamics of the Inter-domain Routing in the Internet Timothy G. Griffin Matthew Roughan Computer Laboratory School of Mathematical Sciences University of Cambridge University of Adelaide, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~tgg22/ http://www.maths.adelaide.edu.au Mathematics for Networks Workshop QMUL March 23 2005
Architecture of Dynamic Routing IGP EGP (= BGP) AS 1 IGP IGP = Interior Gateway Protocol Metric based: OSPF, IS-IS, RIP, EIGRP (cisco) AS 2 EGP = Exterior Gateway Protocol Policy based: BGP The Routing Domain of BGP is the entire Internet
BGP Operations : Hard State Protocol Establish session on TCP port 179 AS1 BGP session Exchange all active routes AS2 While connection is ALIVE exchange route UPDATE messages Exchange incremental updates
How Many ASNs are Being Used Today? Jan 11, 2005 Thanks to Geoff Huston: http://www.potaroo.net/
How Many Prefixes are Being Routed Today? Jan 11, 2005 From AS 4637: Reach Network
Data Collection: GNU Zebra router router BGP sessions router Zebra Box BGP sessions router
RIPE Routing Information Service http://www.ripe.net/ris rrc00.ripe.net at RIPE NCC, Amsterdam, collects default free routing updates from peers. From October 1999. rrc01.ripe.net at LINX, London. Collects route updates announced by LINX members. From July 2000. rrc02.ripe.net at SFINX, Paris. Collects route updates announced by SFINX members . From March 2001. rrc03.ripe.net at AMS-IX, Amsterdam. Collects route updates announced by AMS-IX members. From January 2001. rrc04.ripe.net at CIXP, Geneva. Collects route updates announced by CIXP members. From April 2001. rrc05.ripe.net at VIX, Vienna. Collects route updates announced by VIX members. From June 2001. rrc06.ripe.net at Otemachi, Japan. Collects route updates announced by JPIX members. From August 2001. rrc07.ripe.net in Stockholm, Sweden. Collects route updates announced by the NETNOD members. From April 2002. rrc08.ripe.net at San Jose (CA), USA. Collects route updates announced by the MAE-WEST members. From May 2002. rrc09.ripe.net at Zurich, Switzerland. Collected route updates announced by the TIX members. From May 2003 to until early Feb 2004. rrc10.ripe.net at Milan, Italy. Collects route updates announced by the MIX members. From Nov 2003. rrc11.ripe.net at New York (NY), USA. Collects route updates announced by the NYIIX members. From Feb 2004. rrc12.ripe.net at Frankfurt, Germany. Collects route updates announced by the DE-CIX members. From Jul 2004.
University of Oregon Route Views Projecthttp://antc.uoregon.edu/route-views Participants AOL (NoVa) 126.96.36.199 through AS1668 APAN (tpr2-tokyo) 188.8.131.52 through AS7660 ATT (SFO) 184.108.40.206 through AS7018 Abilene (Indiana) 220.127.116.11 through AS11537 Accretive (PAO) 18.104.22.168 through AS11608 Accretive (SEA) 22.214.171.124 through AS11608 Army Research Lab 126.96.36.199 through AS13 Broadwing (ADDS) 188.8.131.52 through AS6395 Broadwing (MAE-EAST) 184.108.40.206 through AS6395 Broadwing (MAE-WEST) 220.127.116.11 through AS6395 C&W USA (Santa Clara) 18.104.22.168 through AS3561 COMindico (AU) 22.214.171.124 through AS9942 Carrier1 (NYC) 126.96.36.199 through AS8918 EBONE (EU) 188.8.131.52 through AS1755 ELI (MAE-EAST) 184.108.40.206 through AS5650 ELI (MAE-WEST) 220.127.116.11 through AS5650 EPOCH (PAIX) 18.104.22.168 through AS4565 ESnet (GA) 22.214.171.124 through AS293 France Telecom (NYC) 126.96.36.199 through AS5511 GLOBIX (LINX) 188.8.131.52 through AS4513 GLOBIX (New York) 184.108.40.206 through AS4513 GLOBIX (Chicago) 220.127.116.11 through AS4513 GLOBIX (Palo Alto) 18.104.22.168 through AS4513 GT Group Tel (Toronto,CA) 22.214.171.124 through AS6539 Genuity (Palo Alto) 126.96.36.199 through AS1 GlobalCrossing (PAIX) 188.8.131.52 through AS3549 IAGnet (Chicago) 184.108.40.206 through AS267 IIJ (Japan) 220.127.116.11 through AS2497 ISC (Palo Alto) 18.104.22.168 through AS3557 Intermedia (MAE-EAST) 22.214.171.124 through AS2548 JINX (Johannesburg) 126.96.36.199 through AS2905 Jippii (ESPANIX/Spain) 188.8.131.52 through AS8782 LINX (London) 184.108.40.206 through AS5459 Level3 (Denver) 220.127.116.11 through AS3356 MFN/AboveNet (MAE-WEST) 18.104.22.168 through AS6461 MFS/MAE-lab (San Jose) 22.214.171.124 through AS6066 Nacamar (Frankfurt) 126.96.36.199 through AS3257 Netrail (MAE-WEST) 188.8.131.52 through AS4006 Port80 (Stockholm) 184.108.40.206 through AS16150 RCN (PAIX) 220.127.116.11 through AS6079 RCN (VA) 18.104.22.168 through AS6079 RIPE NCC (Amsterdam) 22.214.171.124 through AS3333 STARTAP (Chicago) 126.96.36.199 through AS10764 Sprint (Stockton) 188.8.131.52 through AS1239 Telefonica (New York) 184.108.40.206 through AS12956 Teleglobe (London,UK) 220.127.116.11 through AS8297 Teleglobe (PAIX) 18.104.22.168 through AS6453 Telstra (Sydney,AU) 22.214.171.124 through AS1221 TELUS (Toronto) 126.96.36.199 through AS852 TouchAmerica () 188.8.131.52 through AS19092 Verio () 184.108.40.206 through AS2914 Verio () 220.127.116.11 through AS2914 WCI Cable (Hillboro, OR) 18.104.22.168 through AS14608 Williams (San Francisco) 22.214.171.124 through AS7911 Williams (San Francisco) 126.96.36.199 through AS7911 X0 (Bay Area) 188.8.131.52 through AS2828 Zocalo (Berkeley) 184.108.40.206 through AS715 blackrose.org (Ann Arbor) 220.127.116.11 through AS234 netINS (Des Moines) 18.104.22.168 through AS5056 Many streams since 2001
Reading the Data www.mrtd.net route_btoa translates binary to ASCII
BGP Update Streams Data from rrc01.ripe.net (LINX, London)
Look At BGP Table Size table size
A Closer Look … table size
The Challenge Can we develop rigorous stochastic models for • the generation of BGP updates? • the propagation of BGP updates? • observed BGP update streams? • correlations between multiple data streams? • anomaly detection? • improving protocol design?
This will not be easy… • Data is complex • BGP topology is not known • BGP policies are secret • Implementation matters • A network of BGP speakers acts like a large network of Communicating Finite State Machines ---- so is a large finite state transducer
Implementation Does Matter! stateless withdraws widely deployed stateful withdraws widely deployed Thanks to Abha Ahuja and Craig Labovit for this plot.
A few useful links… Real-time Global Routing Metrics http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0402/ogielski.html BGP Beacons http://www.psg.com/~zmao/BGPBeacon.html http://www.ripe.net/ris/docs/beacon.html What is the sound of one route flapping? http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~mili/workshop2002/slides/griffin_dartmouth_20020723.pdf