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Protestant Reformation in Europe Part One: Causes and Martin Luther (Approximately 16 th Century). Advanced Placement European History G-359 Mr. Hamman and Mr. Palmer. Causes of the Reformation: Church Problems. Within the Church:

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protestant reformation in europe part one causes and martin luther approximately 16 th century

Protestant Reformation in EuropePart One: Causes and Martin Luther (Approximately 16th Century)

Advanced Placement European History G-359

Mr. Hamman and Mr. Palmer

causes of the reformation church problems
Causes of the Reformation: Church Problems

Within the Church:

- LMA damages to church reputation (Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism)

  • Money to Rome / Papal extravagance
  • Corruption In the Church:

Three Disorders:

      • Clerical immorality, ignorance, pluralism/absenteeism


  • Political Intertwining of the Church
  • Religious: Challenges to Church doctrine… (not dogma!!)
causes of the reformation church problems1
Causes of the Reformation: Church Problems

Outside of the Church:

  • Political/Economic: Competition between Church and Princes/Kings. (up to 1/3 of European land owned by the church)
  • Intellectual: Renaissance Ideas and Christian Humanist influence.
  • Technological: Printing Press
  • Social: Better educated urban populace more critical of the Church than the rural populace.
key intellectual influences prior the reformation
Key Intellectual Influences prior the Reformation:

Marsiliusof Padua


Major Written Work:


(Defender of the Peace)

Intellectual Contribution:

  • Attacked papal authority
  • The Christian community is the

sum of ALL its parts!

Quote from Political Representation in the Later Middle Ages: Marsilius in Context by H. Lee.

“Some authorities consider Defensorpacis one of the most important political and religious works of fourteenth-century Europe. In the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated on different points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensorpacis. He dealt here with problems concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penance, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the general church council, marriage and divorce, and unity with the Greek Orthodox Church. In this work he even more clearly articulates imperial supremacy over the Church.”

key intellectual influences prior the reformation1
Key Intellectual Influences prior the Reformation:

John Wycliffe



  • English theologian, reformer, and

teacher at Oxford University.

- His followers were known as “Lollards”.

Intellectual Contributions:

  • Preached Anti-clerical and biblically centered reforms.
  • Opposed papal influence on secular powers.
  • Advocated translation of Bible into common language
key intellectual influences prior the reformation2
Key Intellectual Influences prior the Reformation:

Jan Hus



-Czech priest and reformer

-Influenced strongly by the writing of Wycliffe.

Intellectual Significance:

-Preached many of the reforms that Wycliffe had written about.

  • Preached in Czech.
  • Criticized Indulgences.

Was ordered to STOP by the church, and when he wouldn’t…

He was burned as the stake for heresy.

key intellectual influences prior the reformation3
Key Intellectual Influences prior the Reformation:



Major Works:

The Praise of Folly, On Free Will, Julius Exclusus

Intellectual Contributions:

  • “Raised many questions of the Reformation”
  • Took a satirical look at Church corrupt practices
  • Advocated church reform from “within”
events of the reformation martin luther
Events of the Reformation: Martin Luther

Martin Luther


- Augustinian Friar

  • Professor of Scriptures at University of Wittenberg.
events of the reformation martin luther1
Events of the Reformation: Martin Luther

Luther’s Theological Ideas:

Sola Fide, Sola gratia, Sola Scriptura

  • “Faith Alone, Grace Alone, Scripture Alone”
  • Key:

Salvation by Faith, not “good works”

Faith is a gift of God

God’s word in scripture, not in church traditions.

events of the reformation martin luther2
Events of the Reformation: Martin Luther

1517: Posts “Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences” in response to Tetzel’s indulgence sale blitz.

1519: Debates Johann Eck in Leipzig

- Denies authority of Pope

- showed his support for Jan Hus…even

though his was already “toast”.

1520: Papal Bull “ExsurgeDomine”

Threatens Luther with excommunication if he does not


Enter the Printing Press!!!!!

events of the reformation martin luther3
Events of the Reformation: Martin Luther

1521:Diet of Worms is held by HRE Charles V.

Luther is Excommunicated.

The Edict of Worms was a decree issued on 25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring:

“For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, where upon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.”

“Unless I am convinced by the evidence of Scripture or by plain reason—for I do not accept the authority of the Pope or the councils alone, since it is established that they have often erred and contradicted themselves—I am bound by the Scriptures I have cited and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for it is neither safe nor right to go against my conscience. God Help me. Amen.

Let’s Take a look

events of the reformation martin luther4
Events of the Reformation: Martin Luther

Enter Frederick III “the Elector” of Saxony…

(AKA Frederick The Wise 1463-1525)

  • “kidnaps” Martin Luther before the Edit of Worms was enacted.
  • Protects him from punishment…..

And so the Reformation has begun…..

a political impact of reformation
A Political Impact of Reformation

Make sure to pay attention to the Rise of Habsburg Dynasty in your book!!! (Pg. 457-458)

Charles the V was a VERY powerful man!!!!

  • German Princes line up supporting either Catholicism (Pope/Charles V) or Lutheranism (Luther)
    • Motivations for this are both theological and political.
  • HRE Charles V strongly Catholic.
    • Defending both “Church & Empire”
  • Peace of Augsburg (1555)
    • Despite early success, Charles V agreed to the Peace.
      • Officially recognized Lutheranism
      • Princes and Councils decide if their territory would become Lutheran or remain Catholic.
protestant appeal
Protestant Appeal
  • Intellectual Impact: Educated & Humanists
    • Attracted to centrality of Scripture.
    • Insistence on everyone reading Scripture attracted the literate and “thoughtful middle class”
  • Economic Impact:
    • Some envied the Church’s wealth, tithes, and taxation. Protestant thought was a way to change this.
social impact german peasants war
Social Impact: German Peasants’ War


- Condition of peasants generally worse than in 15th Century.

- Crop failures 1523-24.

1525: Peasants draw up Twelve Articles; a list of grievances against nobles and others.

- Believed their demands were supported in the Scriptures and used Luther as the person who would support this.

Luther did NOT!!!!!

social impact women marriage
Social Impact: Women & Marriage
  • Marriage of pastors allowed in many protestant faiths.
    • Marriage was to represent “spiritual equality” but “proper social hierarchy”.
    • Women were NOT allowed to hold positions of authority in most Protestant Churches.
    • Marriage not a sacramental union, but a contract.
      • Divorce allowed
    • Limited options for women with the closing of some convents.
martin luther
Martin Luther….

In POLKA FORM!!!!!!!!

the reformation spreads
The Reformation Spreads

Ulrich Zwingli


Swiss Humanist, Priest, admirer of Erasmus.

- Preached from Erasmus’s New Testament and not the church prescribed readings.

- Focus on scriptures

- against: indulgences, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.

reformation spreads
Reformation Spreads

John Calvin


  • Settled in Geneva Switzerland.
  • Established a “theocracy” of Calvinism
  • Major Work: The Institutes of Christian Religion
  • KEY distinction of Calvinist theology:


Calvinism will come to be the faith that will have the most “widespread” impact in the Reformation.

  • Radical Reformation
    • “one who baptizes over again”
    • Influenced by radical theologians, like Thomas Munzter.
    • Believed in separation of church and state and were often pacifists.
      • Today: Similar to beliefs of Amish and Mennonites
    • Suffered persecution across Europe.
tenants of anabaptist
Tenants of Anabaptist
  • Believer's Baptism: Baptism is to be administered to believers only.
  • Symbolism of Holy Communion: Communion is a memorial of the death of Christ, and transubstantiation does not occur.
  • Restricted Communion: The bread and "fruit of the vine" should be broken with baptized believers only.
  • Religious Separation Christians should be separated from the world.
  • Separation of church and state
  • Christians should not make an oath or hold the office of magistrate.
  • Pacifism (nonresistance)Christians should not exercise self-defense or go to war.

Henry VIII:

Son of Henry VII and younger brother to Arthur.

Eventually Married Catherine of Aragon.

- Catherine previously was married to Arthur. (Ewwwwww)

- Why?

- Political power… Spain / England connected through marriage.

Initially they have a very happy marriage. They were both very religious.


Henry VIII, at first, was a defender of Catholicism in the face of the Reformation.

He even wrote a book called “The Defense of Seven Sacraments.”

This book earned him the title “Defender of the Faith”


Until….. He and Catherine could not produce a male heir.

- Henry asks Pope Clement VII for annulment of his marriage to Catherine.

Clement VII refuses.. Because Catherine’s powerful nephew, HRE Charles V, doesn’t approve.

Henry took the bold move to separate from the Catholic Church

He asked (or forced) his followers to take an oath of supremacy

The Act of Supremacy made the English King head of the Church of England. It was signed in 1534.

  • Originally, he did not intend to change the doctrines at all.
  • He just wanted to be the head of the church and not subject to the Pope’s authority.
  • Once the separation began, many reformers in England saw this as a welcome move
  • Henry VIII confiscated monastic lands and church wealth as the English Reformation ensued.
  • The monasteries were dissolved.The land and wealth was passed out to Henry’s loyal followers
  • Many monasteries and abbeys fell into disrepair and ruin
  • Other church buildings were saved when they became Protestant Churches
  • Many churches suffer vandalism when their statues and windows are smashed in an anti-Catholic reaction
  • The landed classes will continue to support the Kings andQueens of England

Henry VIII eventually did get his son… after 6 marriages.

So, as we end this part of our story, we can recall the ditty:Henry VIII had six wives—One divorcedOne beheadedOne diedOne divorcedOne beheadedOne survived

His most influential offspring will come from not his son, but his daughter Elizabeth I.


Protestant Reformation in EuropePart Four: The Counter Reformation(AKA the Catholic Reformation)(Approximately 16th Century)

catholic reformation
Catholic Reformation

Pope Paul III (1534-1549)

1542 Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.

-Combat heresy.

- Had power over Roman Inquisition.

- Index of Prohibited Books.

- Effective within the Papal States, but not as such outside.

catholic reformation1
Catholic Reformation

Council of Trent (1545-1563)

- Called to reform church and “reconciliation”

with Protestants. (This was not possible.)


- gave more validity to scriptures.

- reaffirmed seven sacraments and transubstantiation.

- Tackled abuses:

- bishops required to live in diocese

- forbade indulgences.

- Increased education of clergy

catholic reformation2
Catholic Reformation

New Religious Orders:

Ursuline order of nuns

- established to combat heresy through Christian education.

- concentrated on teaching girls in hopes to “re-Christianize” future mothers and wives.

- Influence in France and New World.

Society of Jesus(Jesuits)

- Founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)

- Had an international role in stopping the spread of Protestantism.

- Converted many worldwide to Catholicism.

- spread Christian education across Europe.

general political consequences
General Political Consequences
  • Gain in power of the state – preached obedience to the crown in Protestant areas
  • Luther – rejects toleration – true faith was Luther’s faith – “passive obedience” to any ruler, one’s religious obligation, punishment otherwise
  • Calvin – human affairs are to be regulated for the glory of God, rulers must enforce religious conformity as defined by Calvin, no religious toleration or disobedience, ‘if a ruler is evil, it is due to the sins of the people’ – “spiritual elect” carry over into political and social areas - ARISTOCRACY