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Protestant Reformation in Europe Part One: Causes and Martin Luther (Approximately 16 th Century). Advanced Placement European History G-359 Mr. Hamman and Mr. Palmer. Causes of the Reformation: Church Problems. Within the Church:
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Advanced Placement European History G-359
Mr. Hamman and Mr. Palmer
Within the Church:
- LMA damages to church reputation (Babylonian Captivity & Great Schism)
Outside of the Church:
Major Written Work:
(Defender of the Peace)
sum of ALL its parts!
Quote from Political Representation in the Later Middle Ages: Marsilius in Context by H. Lee.
“Some authorities consider Defensorpacis one of the most important political and religious works of fourteenth-century Europe. In the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated on different points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensorpacis. He dealt here with problems concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penance, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the general church council, marriage and divorce, and unity with the Greek Orthodox Church. In this work he even more clearly articulates imperial supremacy over the Church.”
teacher at Oxford University.
- His followers were known as “Lollards”.
-Czech priest and reformer
-Influenced strongly by the writing of Wycliffe.
-Preached many of the reforms that Wycliffe had written about.
Was ordered to STOP by the church, and when he wouldn’t…
He was burned as the stake for heresy.
The Praise of Folly, On Free Will, Julius Exclusus
- Augustinian Friar
Luther’s Theological Ideas:
Sola Fide, Sola gratia, Sola Scriptura
Salvation by Faith, not “good works”
Faith is a gift of God
God’s word in scripture, not in church traditions.
1517: Posts “Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences” in response to Tetzel’s indulgence sale blitz.
1519: Debates Johann Eck in Leipzig
- Denies authority of Pope
- showed his support for Jan Hus…even
though his was already “toast”.
1520: Papal Bull “ExsurgeDomine”
Threatens Luther with excommunication if he does not
Enter the Printing Press!!!!!
1521:Diet of Worms is held by HRE Charles V.
Luther is Excommunicated.
The Edict of Worms was a decree issued on 25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring:
“For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, where upon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.”
“Unless I am convinced by the evidence of Scripture or by plain reason—for I do not accept the authority of the Pope or the councils alone, since it is established that they have often erred and contradicted themselves—I am bound by the Scriptures I have cited and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for it is neither safe nor right to go against my conscience. God Help me. Amen.
Let’s Take a look
Enter Frederick III “the Elector” of Saxony…
(AKA Frederick The Wise 1463-1525)
And so the Reformation has begun…..
Make sure to pay attention to the Rise of Habsburg Dynasty in your book!!! (Pg. 457-458)
Charles the V was a VERY powerful man!!!!
- Condition of peasants generally worse than in 15th Century.
- Crop failures 1523-24.
1525: Peasants draw up Twelve Articles; a list of grievances against nobles and others.
- Believed their demands were supported in the Scriptures and used Luther as the person who would support this.
Luther did NOT!!!!!
In POLKA FORM!!!!!!!!
Swiss Humanist, Priest, admirer of Erasmus.
- Preached from Erasmus’s New Testament and not the church prescribed readings.
- Focus on scriptures
- against: indulgences, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.
PREDESTINATION & The “Elect”
Calvinism will come to be the faith that will have the most “widespread” impact in the Reformation.
Son of Henry VII and younger brother to Arthur.
Eventually Married Catherine of Aragon.
- Catherine previously was married to Arthur. (Ewwwwww)
- Political power… Spain / England connected through marriage.
Initially they have a very happy marriage. They were both very religious.
Henry VIII, at first, was a defender of Catholicism in the face of the Reformation.
He even wrote a book called “The Defense of Seven Sacraments.”
This book earned him the title “Defender of the Faith”
Until….. He and Catherine could not produce a male heir.
- Henry asks Pope Clement VII for annulment of his marriage to Catherine.
Clement VII refuses.. Because Catherine’s powerful nephew, HRE Charles V, doesn’t approve.
He asked (or forced) his followers to take an oath of supremacy
The Act of Supremacy made the English King head of the Church of England. It was signed in 1534.England
Church of England
Henry VIII eventually did get his son… after 6 marriages.
So, as we end this part of our story, we can recall the ditty:Henry VIII had six wives—One divorcedOne beheadedOne diedOne divorcedOne beheadedOne survived
His most influential offspring will come from not his son, but his daughter Elizabeth I.
Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
1542 Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.
- Had power over Roman Inquisition.
- Index of Prohibited Books.
- Effective within the Papal States, but not as such outside.
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
- Called to reform church and “reconciliation”
with Protestants. (This was not possible.)
- gave more validity to scriptures.
- reaffirmed seven sacraments and transubstantiation.
- Tackled abuses:
- bishops required to live in diocese
- forbade indulgences.
- Increased education of clergy
New Religious Orders:
Ursuline order of nuns
- established to combat heresy through Christian education.
- concentrated on teaching girls in hopes to “re-Christianize” future mothers and wives.
- Influence in France and New World.
Society of Jesus(Jesuits)
- Founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
- Had an international role in stopping the spread of Protestantism.
- Converted many worldwide to Catholicism.
- spread Christian education across Europe.