ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONfrom PROCESS INDUSTRIES&Battery Recycling Asst. Prof. Dr. Mustafa ILKAN School of Computing and Technology Director April 2010
In this presentation Pollution and Pollutants Types of Pollution Effects of Pollution Managing Pollution
Pollution Introduction by man, waste matter or surplus energy into the environment, which directly or indirectly causes damage to man and his environment.
Pollutant A substance or effect which adversely alters the environment by changing the growth rate of species, interferes with the food chain, is toxic, or interferes with health, comfort amenities or property values of people.
EFFECTS ON BIOSPHERE 1. Damage to human health by specific chemical substances present in the air, food, water and radioactive material 2. Damage to natural environment affecting vegetation, animals, crops, soil and water 3. Damage to visual quality by smoke, fumes, dust, noise and waste 4. Damage by radioactive materials and excessive noise
TYPES OF POLLUTION • Water Pollution • Air Pollution • Land Pollution • Noise Pollution • Thermal Pollution • Electro Pollution (electronic wastes) • Visual Pollution
b) Air Pollution • Air is considered safe when it contains no harmful dust and gases. • Polluted air affects: • Humans • Animals • Vegetation • Materials
Effects from Air Pollution • Global warming • Ozone depletion (Ozone hole) • Acid Rain • Various respiratory illnesses
Air Pollution has No Boundaries
Pollution of air • Particulate Matter PM10 (<10μm) • Dust (e.g. cement dust, bagasse, foundry dust and wind blown solid dust) • Mist • Smoke • Carbon black • Aerosols
Some Polluting Process Industries SulfuricAcid Plants Thermal Power Stations Nitric Acid Plants Cement Plants Foundaries Plastic Industries
c) Land Pollution Urbanization and Concentration of Population Municipal Solid Waste IndustrialWaste and Hazardous Waste Uncontrolled “Land Treatment”. Burning open dumps and forest fires Deforestation Mining and Erosion
d) Noise Pollution • Exposure to prolong noise affects speech, hearing, general health and behaviour. • Noise Levels _ dB • Intensity • frequency • periods of exposure and • duration
Intensity (Loudness) Measure of acoustic energy of the sound vibrations Expressed in terms of sound pressure. Decibels (dB) are the unit of measurement on the Loudness scale
Physical Characteristics of Sound • Measurement and human perception of Sound involves three basic physical characteristics: • Intensity • Frequency • Duration
Industrial Noise Sources Metal fabrication (pressing, grinding, chipping etc.) High pressure burners in furnaces Turbines Compressors Pumps Welding machines Cranes and other vehicles Pipe lines carrying high velocity fluids and solids Vibrating and grinding equipment
Pollution Management Pollution can be controlled by proper choice of preventive and remedial measures
Land Pollution Control Integrated Solid Waste Management Good agricultural practices Remediation of polluted soils Prevention of erosion and silting Containment of hazardous waste and waste water treatment using land treatment techniques.
3R Principle Reduce Reuse Recycle
Occupational Health & Safety • Occupational safety and health is the discipline concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of employees of the industry and the general public. • Safety in process design can be considered under the following broad headings. • 1. Identification and assessment of the hazard • 2. Control of hazards • 3. Control of the process • 4. Limitation of the loss.
Battery Recycling • Americans purchase nearly 3 billion dry-cell batteries every year. • 350 million are rechargeable. • Only 3-5% of primary dry cells are recycled. • Nearly 99 million wet-cell leadacid car batteries are manufactured each year
Battery recycling • A primary battery will only return 1/50 the energy used to make it. • Batteries contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and nickel, which can contaminate the environment when batteries are improperly disposed of.