slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
MUSCULAR SYSTEM PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

MUSCULAR SYSTEM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 169 Views
  • Uploaded on

MUSCULAR SYSTEM. Kaitlyn Skidmore Qua’Shaya Hammon Camille Torres. The Functions of the Muscular System. The Muscular System : Provides Structure Aids in Movement Production of Heat Stability of Joints. SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE. MUSCLE FIBER STRUCTURE.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'MUSCULAR SYSTEM' - karif


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

MUSCULAR

SYSTEM

Kaitlyn Skidmore

Qua’Shaya Hammon

Camille Torres

slide2

The Functions of the Muscular System

The Muscular System:

  • Provides Structure
  • Aids in Movement
  • Production of Heat
  • Stability of Joints
slide5

Neuromuscular junction- Connection between the motor neuron and the muscle fiber

Motor End Plate-The flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle

Neurotransmitter- Cytoplasm at the distal ends of these motor neuron axons; rich in mitochondria and contains many tiny vesicles that stores chemicals.

Muscle Contraction- A complex interaction of organelles and molecules in which myosin binds to actin and exerts pulling action.

slide6

ACTIN AND MYOSIN

Actin:

A protein involved in cell movement: a protein present in all cells and in muscle tissue where it plays a role in contraction.

Myosin:

A muscle protein: a protein in muscles that helps them contract when connected with the protein actin.

slide7

SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY

The process of contraction begins with:

The stimulation of a motor neuron, which releases

acetylcholine, causing the chemical, calcium (Ca++) to be

released.

This calcium molecule will shift a troponin, making a site

available for the myosin heads to connect to the actin

molecule creating the contraction.

Once the myosin filament attaches to the actin, ATP releases

the bond between the two, then a chemical,

acetylcholinesterase, is released to digest the acetylcholine,

so that it may be recycled and used once again for

contraction.

slide8

Muscle Fatigue: a muscle exercised strenuously for a prolonged period may lose its ability to contract.

  • Cramps: is a painful condition in which a muscle undergoes a sustained involuntary contraction.
skeletal muscle contraction types
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Types
  • Sustained Contractions
    • Even when a muscle is at rest, a certain amount of sustained contraction is occurring in its fibers. This is called muscle tone.
  • Isometric contraction
    • The muscle becomes taut, but the attachment(s) do not move; tensing a muscle
  • Isotonic contractions
    • The muscle shortens and its attachment(s) move(s).
slide12

SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION

A protein, calmodulin binds to calcium ions (no troponin) and activates the contraction mechanism.

Most calcium diffuses in to smooth muscle cells from the extracellular fluid (reduced SR).

Norepinephrine and acetylcholine are smooth muscle neurotransmitters.

4. Contraction is slow and sustained.

slide14

Prime Mover (agonist) = the primary muscle responsible for a movement.

    • The biceps brachii in flexing the arm at the elbow
  • Antagonist(s) = the muscle(s) in opposition to the action of the prime mover. The antagonist relaxes (or stretches) during the prime movement.
    • The triceps brachii is the antagonist of the biceps brachii when we flex the arm at the elbow.
  • Synergist(s) = muscles that assist the prime mover.
    • The brachialis helps the biceps brachii during elbow flexion.
  • Origin = the attachment site of the muscle’s tendon to a more stationary bone. It has very less movement and normally a muscle contracts towards it.
    • Some muscles have more than one origin, for example, biceps brachii.
  • Insertion = the attachment site of the muscle’s tendon to a more movable bone is known as the muscle’s insertion. It has the greatest motion when the muscle contracts and it tends to be more distal.
    • radius/ulna
slide15

ORIGIN AND INSERTION

Origin is the attachment site of the muscle’s tendon to a more stationary bone. It has very less movement and normally a muscle contracts towards it. Some muscles have more than one origin, for example, biceps brachii.

Insertion is the attachment site of the muscle’s tendon to a more movable bone is known as the muscle’s insertion. It has the greatest motion when the muscle contracts and it tends to be more distal.

slide16

ANTAGONIST AND SYNERGIST

An antagonist muscle is one that works in opposition to the movement initiated by an agonist muscle. The antagonist muscle in a muscle set brings a limb or other anatomical part back to its initial position of rest.

A synergist muscle is a muscle which works in concert with another muscle to generate movement. These muscles can work with the agonists or prime movers which surround a joint, or the antagonistic muscles, which move in the opposite direction.

slide17

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

  • Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited disorders that involve muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time.
slide18

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS

Muscular dystrophies, or MD, are a group of inherited conditions, which means they are passed down through families. They may occur in childhood or adulthood.

  • Symptoms include:
  • Intellectual disability (only present in some types of the condition)
  • Muscle weakness that slowly gets worse
  • Delayed development of muscle motor skills
  • Difficulty using one or more muscle groups
  • Drooling
  • Eyelid drooping (ptosis)
  • Frequent falls
  • Loss of strength in a muscle or group of muscles as an adult
  • Loss in muscle size
  • Problems walking (delayed walking)
slide19

TEST/TREATMENTS

The doctor's exam may show:

•Abnormally curved spine (scoliosis)

•Joint contractures (clubfoot, clawhand, or others)

•Low muscle tone (hypotonia)

And

•Heart testing - electrocardiography (ECG)

•Nerve testing - electromyography (EMG)

•Blood testing - including CPK level

•Genetic testing for some forms of muscular dystrophy

There are no known cures for the various muscular dystrophies. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms

slide20

Summation- Occurs in the neuromuscular junction; it is the additive effect of several electrical impulses.

Recruitment- contraction of one motor unit and all muscle fibers at the same time

Sustained contraction- also called a tetanic contraction, occurs when there is an accumulation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction.

-It occurs rapidly, giving no time for the muscle to relax between stimuli

-Remains constant in a steady state; maximal muscle contraction

Muscle Tone- continuous and partial contraction of muscles

-recruitment and summation combined

slide21

WORKS CITED

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-origin-and-vs-insertion/

http://www.livestrong.com/article/259009-muscles-that-are-prime-movers/

http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-synergist-muscle.htm

http://topics.wisegeek.org/topics.htm?antagonist-muscle#a=65221&t=default&k=Antagonist%20Muscle&b=1&p=5&s=RelatedTopicsSorterDefault&r=0

http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2008/02/11/science/20080212_MUSC_GRAPHIC.html

http://homepages.ius.edu/KEDMONDS/muscles.htm

http://quizlet.com/3513668/skeletal-muscle-parts-flash-cards/

http://faculty.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/AP1pages/Units5to9/unit9/summatio.htm

http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/movies/actin_myosin_gif.html

http://washhouseanatomy.wikispaces.com/Tyesha+Robinson

http://gifsoup.com/view/4447671/muscle-origin-insertion.html