Muscular system
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Muscular System. Vocabulary. bi- two -ia condition of -lysis destruction, dissolve myo- muscle -plegia paralysis tri- three tendo- tendon para- lower half fasci- fibrous band Carp – wrist. ad- to, toward or near ab- from, away circum- around

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Vocabulary l.jpg
Vocabulary

bi- two

-ia condition of

-lysis destruction, dissolve

myo- muscle

-plegia paralysis

tri- three

tendo- tendon

para- lower half

fasci- fibrous band

Carp – wrist


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ad- to, toward or near

ab- from, away

circum- around

inter- between, among


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General Info

  • Consists of 650 muscles

  • Muscles are bundles muscle fibers held together by connective tissue


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Properties

  • Excitability

    • Ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nerve impulse

  • Extensibility

    • Ability to be stretched

  • Elasticity

    • Allows the muscle to return to its original shape after it has contracted or stretched


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Contractibility -Muscle fibers stimulated by nerves contract or become shorter and thicker which causes movement


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Types of Muscles

  • Skeletal

    • Attached to bones and causes movement


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Cardiac Muscle

  • Found only in the heart

  • Contracts to circulate blood


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Visceral Muscle

  • Also called smooth

  • Found in all internal organs


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Functions of Muscles

  • Attaches to bones to provide voluntary movement

  • Produces heat and energy

  • Helps maintain posture

  • Protects internal organs


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Tendons

  • Strong, tough, connective tissue

  • One way skeletal muscles attach to bones

  • Ex: Achilles →


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Fascia

  • Tough sheet-like membrane that covers and protects tissue

  • Ex: back


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Muscle Actions

  • Origin

    • End of the muscle that does not move

  • Insertion

    • End of the muscle that does move


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Muscle Movements

  • Adduction

    • Moving a body part toward the midline


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Abduction

  • Moving a body part away from the midline


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Flexion

  • Decreasing the angle between 2 bones or bending a body part


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Extension

  • Increasing the angle between 2 bones or straightening a body part


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Rotation

  • Turning a body part around it’s own axis


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Circumduction

  • Moving in a circle at a joint while the other end stays stationary


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Muscle Tone

  • State of partial contraction

  • Muscles have some tone at all times


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Atrophy

  • Lack of muscle tone

  • Occurs when muscles are not used for a long period of time they shrink in size and lose strength


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Contracture

  • A severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in a bending of a joint

  • Ex: Foot drop


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Diseases

  • Muscular Dystrophy

    • Group of inherited diseases that lead to chronic progressive muscle atrophy

  • Fibromyalgia

    • Widespread pain in specific muscle sites

    • S/S muscle stiffness, numbness, tingling, pain

  • Muscle Spasms

    • Cramps

    • Sudden involuntary muscle contraction

  • Strain

    • Overstretching of or injury to a muscle or tendon