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The critical role of teachers in optimizing technologies for open learning Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education Sydney 17 Feb 2011. Reducing the per capita cost of wider participation Need for flexible supported open learning

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slide1

The critical role of teachers in optimizing technologies for open learning Diana LaurillardLondon Knowledge LabInstitute of EducationSydney17 Feb 2011

the givens

Reducing the per capita cost of wider participation

Need for flexible supported open learning

Large scale requires institutional collaboration

OERs are needed, but under-used

Acknowledge teacher workload, teacher resistance

Reducing the per capita cost of wider participation

Need for flexible supported open learning

Large scale requires institutional collaboration

OERs are needed, but under-used

Acknowledge teacher workload, teacher resistance

The givens

www.lkl.ac.uk

outline

Teachers’ development needs for TEL

Models of innovation

Supporting academic collaboration in teaching

Analysing costs and learning benefits

Outline

www.lkl.ac.uk

teacher development in use of tel
Teacher development in use of TEL

Teachers need to have - support from their institution

… awareness of students’ capabilities and needs in ICT

… professional development

… peer interaction

“Faculties should have innovation funds to support academics in developing new ways of using ICT”. (Student perspectives on technology, NUS, 2010)

“students are appropriating technologies to meet their own personal, individual needs – mixing … ICT tools and resources, with official course or institutional tools and resources” (Conole et al, Student experiences of TEL Report, JISC, 2006)

“in institutions where student engagement and educational gains are found to be high, one finds a higher than average investment in resources… such as faculty development” (UK HE survey of quality in teaching, Gibbs, 2010)

“faculty members recognize… that peer interactions and collegiality are significant in helping them learn new innovations and strategies” (US survey, 117 staff in 3 colleges. Nicolle, 2008)

teacher development challenges
Teacher development challenges

(i.e. no funding)

Core self-improvement principles for FE

“No one has more knowledge of further education and skills training than the huge number of practitioners, support staff, managers and leaders in the sector” (A new NIS for the Learning and Skills Sector, July 2009).

Difficulties for Academic and Support Staff using TEL:

  • Using learning technology to supplement rather than transform learning and teaching practices 
  • Lack of time to devote to pedagogy 
  • Lack of time to reflect on learning and teaching practice. 
  • Lack of confidence to change learning and teaching practices. 
  • Need for practitioner case studies to inspire others (Project on Transforming Student Experience via Pedagogy, JISC, 05-07)
teacher development challenges1
Teacher development challenges

Difficulties for teachers:

  • Many studies of educational innovation have concluded that the key factors needed to change teacher behaviour are
    • additional time,
    • additional training,
    • cultural change,
    • senior staff involvement,
    • a link to personal reward
  • For example
    • Maths in schools, UK- Dowker 2009
    • Maths in schools, US - Griffin 2004
    • Higher education, UK - Knight, Tait, and Yorke 2006
    • Higher education, US – Dobbins 2008
the dilemma
The dilemma

Poor teacher development practices

  • Poor transfer of educational research to mainstream practice of T&L
  • Learning technologies unable to achieve their potential to improve the quality and reach of education
what to do
What to do?

Top-down - Strategies and policies? – Rhetoric is good, but no follow-through

Bottom-up – Technology will drive innovation? Users will discover solutions for themselves? the Market will provide? – Activity is plentiful, but not improving

Alternative approach – Middle-out:

  • Learn from the scholarship of innovation
  • Adaptive iteration: top middle bottom
  • Trust the professionals
  • Focus on supporting teachers as collaborating innovators
  • Give them aLearning Design Support Environment
slide9

Knowledge management to support innovation

Sharing

Innovating

Evaluating

Expanding knowledge

Validating

Implementing

(Nonaka 1994)

slide10

Innovation in teaching and learning

Sharing

Innovating

Evaluating

Expanding knowledge

Validating

Implementing

slide11

Knowledge management to support innovation in teaching and learning

Sharing

Innovating

Evaluating

Expanding knowledge

Validating

Implementing

slide12

Knowledge management to support innovation in teaching and learning

Adapt patterns

Analyse patterns

Sharing learning

designs

Innovating pedagogic patterns

Evaluating learning designs

Research findings, design advice, patterns

Student feedback

Theory into practice

Existing pedagogical patterns

Implementing courses

Expanding knowledge of T&L

Validating course

Implementing course

OER content resources

LDSE project

adaptive professional development
‘Adaptive professional development’
  • Teachers are best placed to design good pedagogy
  • Provide tools for design, development and sharing
  • Give them time to invest in learning about technology
  • Promote teacher collaboration
  • Make teaching innovation like science

“scientific criticism is the engine of science … the criticism of teaching practices is the engine of progress in teaching” (Benedet, 2010)

requirements analysis for a design tool
Requirements analysis for a design tool

Expanding knowledge – encouraging progression to new methods

“It encourages thinking outside the teaching box”

“Good to have the prompt for learner needs. I’ve been thinking about this ever since”.

“…encouraged reflection and changing practice in terms of mix of delivery/pedagogic methods.”

Sharing – building on the work of peers

“ community needs useful resources that are easily searchable and adaptable.”

“… there is this desire to edit it and make it yours because your areas of focus will be different”

“There’s sort of an increasing need as well, in terms of developing a design, to do it as a community practice, to share and critique ideas and to get the students’ feedback on those”

supporting teacher collaboration
Supporting teacher collaboration

A Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE) for teachers

Ends

Means

  • Building on the work of others
    • Import existing ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching
    • Search for OER ‘content resources’ to populate the patterns
    • Adapt to own context – Test – Redesign – Re-test - Publish
  • Expanding knowledge of using TEL
    • Offer TEL versions of conventional designs
    • Model pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages
  • A microworldfor teachers to adopt, adapt, test in theory, experiment, test in practice, redesign, and share designs
  • Supported by a learning design ontology, structured pedagogical patterns, and a self-configuring system to represent the developing community knowledge base
pedagogical patterns form and content
Pedagogical patterns: Form and Content

Content

Black text is pedagogy

Colouredtext is content-specific

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation of the water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using their lecture notes; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using the Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation ofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,using their lecture notes and book; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own account ofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using the Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using the Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

‘capturing pedagogy’ (Laurillard, 2008)

sharing pedagogical patterns
Sharing pedagogical patterns

Tutorial:Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own account ofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, usingthe Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial:On a system or process

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofthe system/process, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, usingthe resources provided; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

OE Patterns library

Tutorial: Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own account ofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using the Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial:On a system or process

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofthe system/process, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, usingthe resources provided; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation ofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,usingthe OER cycle; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation ofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,usingthe OER cycle; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

sharing pedagogical patterns1
Sharing pedagogical patterns

Tutorial:On a system or process

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofthe system/process, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, usingthe resources provided; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and collaborating to produce a better animation to post on their website

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animationofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,usingthe OER cycle; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and collaborating to produce a betteranimation to post on their website

Tutorial:Using a search engine

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their ownaccountofusing a search engine, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, using the Library guidelines; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and collaborating to produce a better account to post on their website

Tutorial:On a system or process

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own accountofthe system/process, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors, usingthe resources provided; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation ofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,usingthe OER cycle; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and revising their account in the light of the tutor’s summary of the discussion

Tutorial: The water cycle

Learning Outcome: A clear understanding of the role of the critical factors in the system

Summary: through preparing their own animation ofthe water cycle, to demonstrate the role of the critical factors,usingthe OER cycle; presenting it to their group; defending it against questions and comments; and collaborating to produce a better animation to post on their website

and collaborating to produce a better animation to post on their website

education as a learning system
Education asa learning system

Teachers must be able to ‘learn by doing’ – to experiment, share and collaborate

Collaboration on form (pedagogical patterns) should generate a demand for collaboration on content (OERs)

Teachers need the means to experiment, share and collaborate on using ICTs – a knowledge-supported microworld for learning design

a learning design support environment a prototype for ldse a tlrp tel project
A Learning Design Support Environment A prototype for LDSE – a TLRP-TEL project

Build on the work of others – import relevant designs and patterns

a learning design support environment a prototype for ldse a tlrp tel project1
A Learning Design Support Environment A prototype for LDSE – a TLRP-TEL project

Drag and drop sample learning outomes

Edit properties of the learning design

carrying out a learning design
Carrying out a learning design

Types of ‘Session’

Tutor-supported class

Tutor-supported group work

Tutor-supported individual work

Independent group work

Independent individual work

Summative assessment

Dragged and dropped onto a timeline

Choice of teaching and learning activities

analysing costs and learning benefits
Analysing costs and learning benefits

The designed learning experience

Effect of design on

the learning experience, and

the cost of teaching

Teacher time = 125 hours  

Learner time in class = 50 hours  

Other contact = 5 hours

[Laurillard 2006]

modelling costs and benefits of teaching
Modelling costs and benefits of teaching

Plan learner hours for each teaching-learning activity

Define TLAs

Set group sizes

Set teacher times

analysing costs and learning benefits1
Analysing costs and learning benefits

The designed learning experience

The designed learning experience

Teacher time = 80 hours  

Learner time in class = 30 hours  

Other contact = 5 hours

Adaptive tool

Teacher time = 125 hours  

Learner time in class = 50 hours  

Other contact = 5 hours

- a microworldwhere teachers can learn, design, test and share ideas

slide26

Structure of a pedagogical pattern

Short description

Colour-coded content

Learning outcome

Timings

Teaching-learning activities

evolution of a pedagogical pattern
Evolution of a pedagogical pattern

topic

outcome

resource

From Conventional lab to Virtual lab

capturing pedagogical patterns
Capturing pedagogical patterns

thor.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/projects/LDSE/Dejan/ODCTest/ODC.html

capturing pedagogy
Capturing pedagogy
  • To compare the effects of
    • group size
    • alternative teaching methods
    • use of TEL
  • on
    • the learning experience
    • types of learning,
    • teacher time,
    • learner time in class, independent learning…
    • to focus attention on the quality of learning design and the appropriate use of TEL
    • to model the benefits and costs of face-to-face/blended/open learning
slide30

Conceptual model of innovation

Analyse patterns

Adapt patterns

OER library of learning

designs and ontologies

Teachers innovating pedagogic patterns

Teachers evaluating learning designs

Sharing learning

designs

Innovating pedagogic patterns

Evaluating learning designs

Research findings, design advice, patterns

Student feedback

Theory into practice

Existing pedagogical patterns

Teachers implementing courses

Expanding knowledge of T&L

Community knowledge of T&L

Validating course

Institutions validating courses

Implementing courses

OER content resources

OER content resources

The LDSE project

conceptual model of innovation
Conceptual model of innovation

Analyse patterns

Adapt patterns

OER library of learning

designs and ontologies

Teachers innovating pedagogic patterns

Teachers evaluating learning designs

Research findings, design advice, patterns

Student feedback

Theory into practice

Existing pedagogical patterns

Community knowledge of T&L

Institutions validating courses

Teachers implementing courses

OER content resources

The LDSE project

summary supporting teachers in optimising tel for open learning

Teachers also need to ‘learn by doing’

Need to become a collaborativecommunity of experts

Give them tools to design and share new teaching

Use structured pedagogical patterns to exchange good ideas

Use quality OERs to populate the well-designed pattern

Improve the use of blended and distance learning

Summary: Supporting teachers in optimising TEL for open learning

http://thor.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/projects/LDSE/Dejan/ODCTest/ODC.html

https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/Home

some issues for discussion

How best to index and search for pedagogical patterns?

  • What constraints do they place on teachers’ designs?
  • Could this process help teachers to adapt conventional teaching to online teaching appropriately?
  • How do teachers feel about this sharing of ideas?
  • Will teachers be able to innovate more easily in this way?
  • How does our community learn how to support them?

Some issues for discussion