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Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness & Wellness 9e

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  1. Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness & Wellness 9e Concept 21 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections Safe sex and sound information about sexually transmitted infections are important to health and wellness.

  2. Online Learning Center Presentation Overview • Terminology • General Facts • HIV/AIDS • Common STIs • Causes, symptoms, cures, risks, and prevention • Reasons for Risk Among Young People Discussion Activity

  3. Terminology • STDSTI – broader term • Can be infected for many years before signs of disease begin to occur (e.g., HIV/AIDs) • STI better captures the range of outcomes

  4. General Facts • Healthy sexual experience  all wellness dimensions • Good physical health contributes to an active and satisfying sex life • Unsafe sexual activity  disease, poor health, pain, suffering Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections • Bacterial (antibiotics) • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Viral • HIV • Genital Herpes • HPV

  6. HIV/AIDS • Greatest health threat to the world • Worldwide HIV/AIDS epidemic • 1.7 million infected each year • 33 million currently living with HIV • Incidence increasing disproportionately among women and minorities • HIV attacks the immune system • AIDS is when infected with HIV and develop opportunistic diseases

  7. HIV transmission • 3 mechanisms of transmission • Sexual activity • Contact with infected blood (needle sharing) • Transmission from an infected mother to child • Spread by contact with body fluids(blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk) • NOT transmitted through the air, saliva, sweat, or urine

  8. Preventing HIV/AIDS • Personal level - responsibility for reducing risky behaviors • Abstinence • Safe Sex • new condoms each time • lifetime partner • Get Tested – early detection controls spread of AIDS • National/International level - Increasing awareness of and education about risks Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

  9. Recent Developments with AIDS • Self-testing kits • No cure, but treatments have improved • Early treatment reduces death rates • Improvements in drug therapies raise concerns about increases in high-risk sexual behavior • Search for a vaccine for HIV is well underway, though no vaccine is currently available

  10. What is the most common STI? (although not tracked due to lack of awareness) Common Sexually Transmitted Infections Human Papillomavirus HPV

  11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Often not aware of infection • Short term - asymptomatic • Risks • Causes genital warts, but most do not develop • Leading cause of cervical cancer • Prevention: Gardisil vaccination • Only required in Virginia & Washington D.C. Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

  12. Chlamydia • Most commonly reported (past decade) • “Silent” STI - most have no symptoms • Symptoms • Men – penis discharge, burning sensation when urinating • Women – same, plus lower ab or back pain, intercourse pain, bleeding between periods • Risks • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) • Other secondary health problems • Treatment: antibiotics

  13. Gonorrhea • Second most commonly reported STI • Transmitted primarily through sexual activity • Symptoms • Occur within 3 to 7 days after bacteria enters system • painful urination, penile drip or discharge, vaginal discharge • Cure: antibiotic • Risks: PID  infertility

  14. Hepatitis B • Spread through unprotected sex, IV drug use, or mother  baby • Rare transmission through blood transfusion or other contact with infected blood • Symptoms • jaundice, fatigue, ab pain, loss of appetite, nausea • Risks: Chronic infection  liver disease  premature death • Prevention: vaccine

  15. Genital Herpes • Among the most commonly spread due to lack of awareness of infection • Cause: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) • Symptoms: lesions/blisters on penis vagina, or cervix 2 to 12 days after infection  last a week to a month • Cure: none (will always carry virus) • Risks: cervical cancer, transmission to unborn • Prevention: condoms or abstinence

  16. Syphilis • Less common now (prevalent in the 1940s) • Cause: bacteria • Symptoms: chancre sores at site of sexual contact • Primary & secondary phases • Cure: antibiotics • Risks: blindness, deafness, others • Prevention and early detection

  17. Lesser-known STIs • Genital warts - caused by HPV • Self-administered remedies • Pubic crab lice • Highly distressing • Over-the-counter treatments • Chancroid • Most common in developing countries • Very low rates in the US • Known risk factor for HIV transmission, and should be treated promptly with antibiotics

  18. Lab 21a information Reasons for Risk Among Young People • Perceive they are not at risk • Lack knowledge of safe sex strategies • “everyone is doing it” • Do not get tested regularly • Condom use less likely • Serial Monogamy – multiple committed relationships increases risk Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

  19. Summary Be smart! If you are having sex, use protection! • Bacterial and viral STIs, some with no symptoms • Prevention through safe sex and regular screenings • It can happen to you! End of presentation Photo: Creative Commons Flickr

  20. Online Learning Center Supplemental Information Lab Information Discussion Activity

  21. Lab 21a InformationSTI Risk Questionnaire Return to presentation • Complete the STI Risk survey for yourself or someone close to you • Sum up the points and determine rating • What recommendations would you have for that person

  22. Return to presentation Discussion Activity • What do you think are the same reasons why both men and women report for engaging in sex? • What do you think are the different reasons men and women report for engaging in sex? Answer in terms of the wellness dimensions.