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Fairfax County FRD Wellness & Fitness Program Wellness Fitness Initiative (WFI) Goal: To improve the quality of life of uniformed personnel Began in 1998 and led by IAFF and ICHIEFS 10 fire departments, including Fairfax County are currently participating in the WFI Components of the WFI

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fairfax county frd

Fairfax County FRD

Wellness & Fitness Program

wellness fitness initiative wfi
Wellness Fitness Initiative (WFI)

Goal: To improve the quality of life of uniformed personnel

  • Began in 1998 and led by IAFF and ICHIEFS
  • 10 fire departments, including Fairfax County are currently participating in the WFI
  • Components of the WFI
    • Medical
    • Fitness
    • Rehabilitation
    • Behavioral Health
    • Data Collection/Reporting
fairfax county frd health safety
Fairfax County FRD: Health & Safety

Health and safety is one of the County’s eight core values

  • Part of the overall FRD mission is to maintain the highest departmental readiness to provide emergency medical and fire suppression services”
  • Each incident/response is unique, so you will need a high level of physical and mental preparedness

FRD Wellness-Fitness Program

Supported by the Peer Fitness Trainer (PFT) Program

PFT Program Vision:

A healthy and productive workforce in which all Fairfax County FRD personnel participate in a regular fitness program

PFT Mission:

To provide exercise leadership through guidance and supervision and to encourage safety and participation in regular fitness programs for uniformed personnel of Fairfax County FRD

pft capabilities
PFT Capabilities

The “Backbone” of the WFI

  • Lead CPAT & WPE training & practice sessions
  • Conduct WPEs and CPAT
  • Assist with recruit & incumbent PT programs
  • Mentoring-assigned to battalions & available to all FRD personnel; available for one-on-one training
  • Assist with fitness assessments and exercise prescription
  • Conduct presentations in the field
  • Assist with data collection and research projects

S.O.P. 02.03.09

All uniformed personnel are required to participate in a mandatory and regular fitness program

Uniformed shift work personnel are required to engage in personal fitness training during their 24-hour shift and day work personnel during their normal work hours

Types of physical training: Functional Training

Strength Training

Core Conditioning

Aerobic Conditioning


Functional Training

Training for the movements you execute in every day life

  • Non-traditional using multiple planes of movement
  • Job-specific
  • Target areas for multi-functional and dynamic range of movement
  • Trains the “core” muscles and helps to prevent injuries
strength training
Strength Training

The maximum force that a muscle group can produce against resistance

  • Works by overloading a muscle to produce desired changes over time
  • Gives energy
  • Promotes positive changes in body composition
  • Increases balance, coordination and body awareness
  • Aids in rehabilitation of injuries
  • Increases athletic performance on the job
  • Gain lean muscle mass/ increases RMR
  • Better appearance
  • Promotes positive changes in bone density
core conditioning
Core Conditioning

The core is the body’s foundation (abdominals, pelvis, hips, lower back, shoulders)

  • Vital to all ranges of motion
  • Rotation of the core helps to increase the acceleration of a motion, thus adding more power
  • Facilitates every day movement (lifting, climbing)
  • Reduces back injuries
  • Maintains balance during heavy lifting and/or balancing on uneven surfaces
aerobic conditioning
Aerobic Conditioning

Performing activities using large muscle groups at moderate intensities that permit the body to use oxygen to supply energy and to maintain a steady state for more than a few minutes

  • Key to endurance on fire ground
  • Enables the body to work longer and harder
  • Sustain high output levels longer with better aerobic conditioning
  • Quicker recovery time from exhaustion

Training Heart Rate Zone

  • Find your target heart rate
  • Establish training goals
  • Stay within your training zone

Training Principles

Guidelines via the FITT Principle:

F FREQUENCY (How often?)

3-7 times per week

I INTENSITY (How hard?)

60-85% of your estimated maximum heart rate

T TIME / DURATION (How long?)

20-60 minutes per session

T TYPE / MODE (What kind?)

Running, swimming, biking, etc. Whatever interests you and uses major muscle groups to sufficiently increase your heart ate. Vary your mode of activity to reduce injury and boredom.

  • VO-2 max: Bodies ability to utilize O2
  • FF operations occur at 9-12 METs(31.5 to 42 ml/kg/min)(pg5 PFT man)
  • VO-2 ÷ 3.5=METs
  • VO-2 max (page 74 Peer Fitness Trainer Manual)(pg178 ACE)
  • Males over 45, Female over 55 need medical evaluation
fluid intake
Fluid Intake
  • 8 cups a day minimum
  • 75% muscle is water/25% fat is water
  • drink 16oz. water 2hrs before exercise + 8oz 15-30min before
  • 6-12oz water every 15min (exercise for less than an hour)
  • 6-12oz 6 to 8% sport drink every 15 min (exercise more than an hour)
  • 64-96oz post exercise
  • 60-65% Carbs (not sugar)
  • 10-15% Protein
  • 30% Fat (0.8g per kg of body weight RDA)
Blood Pressure:
    • 140/90 (high) relax 5 minutes and retake. Stays high see Doctor
    • 160/100 medically cleared within 1 year and less than 2 risk factors OK
  • Pulse:
    • 110 (high) relax 5 minutes and retake
    • Stays high see Doctor
  • 5-10 minutes active warm-up (minimum)
  • 20-30 minutes exertion to fatigue (minimum)
  • 5-10 cool down and elastic stretching (minimum)
  • 60 – 85% Max HR for aerobic effect (Max HR=220-Age) or
  • Kavornean formula (Max HR – resting pulse X %load + resting pulse)
    • 30% body fat women
    • 25% body fat men
  • Caloric Expenditure:

(METs x 3.5 x body weight kg)/200 = cal/min (p224 ACE)


Nutrition Basics

You are what you eat…so choose wisely!

  • Eat the recommended servings for each of the food groups
  • Eat a variety of foods low in fat, saturated fat, & cholesterol
  • Choose a diet with plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruits
  • Choose a diet low in sugars and salt
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Read food labels

Nutrition 101: The 6 Essential Nutrients

1) Carbohydrates (starch, sugar, fiber)

  • Major function: fuel source
  • Found in breads, cereals, pasta, fruits, vegetables
  • 55-65% of total kcal; 1 gram= 4 kcal

2) Proteins (made up of amino acids)

  • Major functions: tissue growth & repair
  • Found in meat, fish, beans, milk products
  • 12-20% of total kcal; 1 gram = 4 kcal

3) Fats

  • Major functions: stores energy, cushions organs, insulation
  • Found in margarine, oils, salad dressing
  • 20-30% of total kcal; 1 gram = 9 kcal

Essential Nutrients

  • 4) Vitamins
  • Major function: metabolic reactions in the body
  • Small amounts needed so should get thru a balanced diet
  • Multi-vitamins: extra not needed by the body is excreted
  • 5) Minerals
  • Inorganic elements that come from soil & water
  • Need larger amounts of some minerals (i.e. calcium for bone growth)
  • Some called trace minerals because very small amounts trace minerals because very small amounts needed each day (i.e. iodine, iron, zinc)
  • 6) Water
  • Essential for life
  • Makes up approximately 70% of the human body
weight management
Weight Management

“Most Americans consume more calories than they need without meeting recommended intakes for a number of nutrients.” USHHS & USDA, 2005 Dietary Guidelines

Factors affecting the calories your body needs:

  • Basal metabolic rate –energy for body to function at rest
  • Physical activity –energy for body to function when not at rest
  • Thermic effect of food –energy to digest food
caloric needs
Caloric Needs
  • Average kcal needed for women ages 20-40 years: 1600 to 2000 calories a day
  • Average kcal needed for men aged 20-40 years: 2400 to 2600 calories a day
  • How many calories should I consume to maintain my current weight?
    • Men: (weight in pounds x 11) x activity correction factor
    • Women: (weight in pounds x 10) x activity correction factor
  • Activity correction factor:
    • Inactive-1.2 Moderate-1.5 Active-1.8

Caloric Balance

Caloric intake vs. Caloric expenditure

How do I adjust calories to lose weight?

Reduce # of kcal eaten and/or burn off through exercise

3500 kcal = 1 lb of fat

Safe weight loss = 1-2 lb/week

caloric intake
Caloric Intake

Weight(lbs.) x 10 light activity

15 moderate activity

20 heavy activity

Subtract 100calories FF age 35-44

200calories FF age 45-54

300calories FF age 55-64

400calories FF age 65-up



RMR Men = Weight (lbs) x 11 kcal/lb

  • RMR Women = Weight (lbs) x 10 kcal/lb
  • Daily caloric requirement = RMR x Activity factor
    • Exercise less than 2 times per week 1.2
    • Exercise 3 – 4 days per week 1.5
    • Exercise 5 or more days per week 1.8

Water Intake

  • Drink 8 0z. water 20-30 min. before exercise
  • Drink 6-11 oz. water every 15-20 minutes during exercise
  • Drink 8 oz. water within 30 minutes post exercise
  • Drink 16-20 0z. water for every lb. lost during exercise
10 to 15% protein

55 to 60% carbohydrates

20 to 30% fat

1gram protein = 4 cal

1gram carb = 4 cal

1gram fat = 9 cal

1gram alcohol = 7 cal

Dietary intake


Max Heart Rate

  • 220-age
  • Karvonen formula
    • Resting HR-Max HR(220-age) x % load + resting HR
  • 60 – 85% load for best aerobic effect
  • over 85% load starts working anaerobic systems
Heart, lungs, circulatory system
  • Improves body’s ability to utilize oxygen for fuel production (VO2)
  • Benefits end when exercise ends
exercise frequency
Exercise frequency
  • 3-5 days per week for most aerobic programs
  • 5-60 minutes per session (20 minutes usually minimum)
  • can be broken down to smaller sessions (3 x 10minutes)
  • 55-90% of HR max (220-age)
  • 40-65% max HR primary fuel is fat and O2
  • 65-85% max HR Fat and glucose (best performance improvement)
  • Above 85% anaerobic system takes over producing lactic acid
  • Talk test method
    • If you can talk comfortably you are working aerobically
training methods
Training Methods
  • Continuous training
  • Interval training
  • Fartlek
  • Circuit training
continuous training
Continuous Training

Steady constant load (running, swimming, cycling, walking)

interval training
Interval Training
  • Aerobic
    • HR between 60-80% MaxHR
    • Achieve desired rate for desired amount of time and then recover for desired amount of time
      • Ex.5 minutes work 2 minutes recovery
    • Increase in overall fitness and ability to use oxygen

Aerobic training does not mean being strapped to a treadmill for 30-60 minutes of boring tedious mindless work. Mix it up, 10 minutes each of three different machines. Just get your HR in the desired zone for your desired result. Find what you like or can at least tolerate and improve.

interval training41
Interval Training
  • Anaerobic
    • HR above 85% Max HR
    • Work in aerobic zone then push above anaerobic zone then recover back to aerobic zone
    • Short bouts in anaerobic zone
    • Increases ability to work in anaerobic zone
  • No set times or distances
  • Increase speed uphill or from point to point then recover
circuit training
Circuit Training
  • non stop station base exercises
  • incorporates aerobic activity, resistance training, flexibility
  • great for the time crunched
  • reduces boredom
strength training45
Strength Training
  • The maximum force that a muscle group can produce against resistance.
  • Works by overloading a muscle to produce desired changes over time
benefits for fire fighters
Benefits for Fire Fighters
  • Gives energy
  • Promotes positive changes in body composition
  • Increases balance, coordination and body awareness
  • Aids in rehabilitation of injuries
  • Increases athletic performance on the job
  • Gain lean muscle mass/ increases RMR
  • Better appearance
  • Promotes positive changes in bone density
traditional training methods
Traditional Training Methods
  • Muscle specific
  • Isolates certain areas
  • Requires the proper number of reps and sets to make improvements
  • Only focus in one plane of motion
      • Examples Bench Press, Leg Press etc.
acsm guidelines
  • 1 set
  • 8-12 reps (support benefits)
  • 12-15 reps at lighter weight (endurance)
  • 4-8 reps at heavier weight (strength)

3 times a week for noticeable improvements

training guidelines
  • Include exercises for all of the major muscle groups
  • Develop your muscles in balance
  • Best to exercise larger muscle groups first, followed by medium and smaller groups
  • Use progressive overload strategies safely, changing one variable at a time (i.e. increase sets, reps or weight separately)
  • Work your muscles through a controlled and full range of motion
the core
The Core
  • What is it?
    • Large major muscles that attach to the spine
  • Core Equipment:
    • Body weight
    • Fitness Ball
    • Medicine Ball
    • BOSU
    • Rubber Resistance
    • Free Motion
benefits of core training
Benefits of Core Training
  • Strong center base
  • Balance
  • Reduced injury
  • Fast minimal equipment
  • Primary exercise or active recovery
core training exercises
Core Training Exercises
  • Body weight
    • pull-up, push-up, hand stand, squat, lunge plank, bridge

Core Training Exercises

  • Fitness Ball
    • push-up, plank, bridge, roll-ins, roll-outs, knee twist, hip twist, torso twist, balance, proprioceptive development, squats, back extension, crunches, obliques.
    • Combine with BOSU, medicine balls, rubber resistance, dumbbells

Core Training Exercises

  • BOSU
    • Both Sides Up, More stable than ball, push-up, squat (one or two leg), lunge, crunch, oblique, back extension, knee-in, planks, bridge, tracking proprioceptive development, dynamic moves.
    • Combine with fitness ball, rubber resistance, medicine ball, dumbbell.
core training exercises56
Core Training Exercises
  • Medicine Ball
    • Active warm up-Choppers, push-up, plank. bridge, crunches, squats, lunge, partner work, twist & rotation.
    • Use with fitness balls and BOSU
core training exercises57
Core Training Exercises
  • Rubber Resistance & Free Motion
    • Mimic standard weight lifting moves, squats, lunges, push-up, assisted pull-up, assisted and resisted dip, rotation.
    • Use with fitness ball, BOSU
functional training59
Functional Training
  • Training for specific task, training different body parts to work in concert, training the way we move
  • Equipment
    • Fitness balls, Medicine balls, Rubber Resistance, BOSU, Free Motion, Body weight, anything to simulate desired movement limited only by imagination.
  • Fitness balls
    • squat, lunge, push-up, exercise base, balance, tracking
  • BOSU
    • step, jump, squat, lunge, push-up, exercise base, balance, tracking, dynamic moves
  • Medicine Balls
    • chops, throws, slams, BOSU bounce, squat, lunge, walk-step-pick-up
  • Partner drills (BOSU, Fitness ball)


  • Rubber Resistance
  • Free Motion
    • Ceiling breach, pull down, resisted walking, push, pull, dynamic jump-run, free resisted unconstrained movements, assisted pull-up, resisted pull-up, dip, squat, step back squat
  • Body weight
    • push-up, pull-up, rope pull, squat, lunge, jump, increase load with balls and bands
  • Anything else handy
    • hose, ladders, tires, rope, tools, stairs, chairs, benches
  • Capacity of a joint to move fluidly through its full range of motion
  • Tightness of the soft tissue structures (muscles, ligaments, tendons) is the major limitation to flexibility
  • Flexibility of one joint does not necessarily mean that your other joints are flexible
  • Lack of flexibility can lead to restricted movement and/or injury
factors affecting flexibility
Factors affecting flexibility
  • Age
  • Physical activity
  • Genetic inheritance
  • Joint structure
  • Strength of the opposing muscle group
  • Neuromuscular coordination
  • Gender
  • Increased physical efficiency and performance
  • Decreased injury risk
  • Increased blood supply and nutrients to joint structures
  • Increased neuromuscular coordination
  • Improved muscle balance and postural awareness
  • Decreased risk of low back pain
  • Reduced stress
Static flexibility
    • Ability to hold
    • Affected by body temp
  • Dynamic flexibility
    • Movement through range of motion
common stretching sites
Common stretching sites
  • Lower back/hamstrings
  • Calves
  • Groin
  • Quadriceps (front thigh)
  • Sides
  • Arms
Passive stretch
    • Uses outside force (partner assisted, towel, strap or other equipment)
  • Active stretch
    • Muscle provides movement (no outside forces applied)
  • Static stretching
    • Safest, held for 10 to 60 seconds, increases ROM, enhances relaxation
    • Does not increase dynamic ROM
  • Dynamic stretching
    • Movement through a ROM (exaggerated movements)
    • Can be passive, active or combination
    • Great use for elastic bands and medicine balls
warm up
Warm Up
  • 5 to 10 min. of activity
  • Get things warm
    • Walking, light jog, calisthenics(light sweat)
    • Specific movements for specific activities
    • Dynamic stretches held no more than 10 seconds
cool down
Cool Down
  • Recover HR
  • 5 to 10 minutes static stretch hold 20 seconds or more
  • Long term flexibility