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Learning Presence. Peter Shea Senior Researcher – SUNY Learning Network & Associate Professor University at Albany State University of New York. Current Shift in US Higher Education. Current Shift. Current Shift. Quality of Outcomes: Results of Meta-Analyses of OL vs. CI. 5.

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learning presence

Learning Presence

Peter Shea

Senior Researcher – SUNY Learning Network &

Associate Professor

University at Albany

State University of New York

bigger distinctions chronotopic
Bigger distinctions: Chronotopic

Though the average effect size is “small” when “time” is the mediator the size is “medium”

The mean effect size for studies with moretime spent on task by online learners than learners in the control condition was +0.46

(Means, et.al., 2009)

need for new theories
Need for new theories…
  • Need a new theory of learning online…
still missing the learner
Still missing the “learner”
  • What do effective learners do with their time in the online space?
  • Good (online) learners are
    • Strategic
    • Active
    • Reflective
  • Missing this focus in Community of Inquiry Framework
other evidence for lp
Other evidence for “LP”

Overall, the available research evidence suggests that promoting self-reflection, self-regulation and self-monitoring leads to more positive online learning outcomes.

Features such as prompts for reflection, self-explanation and self-monitoring strategies have shown promise for improving online learning outcomes. Means, et. al. (2009)

what to regulate though
What to regulate though?
  • Current theories of self regulated learning tied to earlier oral epistemology of “knowing” as memorizing
  • Learning online requires different self regulation
  • Difficult and increasingly irrelevant to document “memorization”
lp self regulation towards collaborative online learning
LP: Self regulation towards collaborative online learning
  • Planning and time management
  • Organizing and transforming course materials (e.g. sorting/printing discussions)
  • Environmental structuring (e.g. working from fast internet connections)
  • Self-monitoring/record keeping (# posts/grades)
  • Help seeking (professor and other students)
  • Reflection (on performance/effort)
    • Self-efficacy/attributions for success (predicts effort)

Whipp, 2004

current efforts
Current efforts
  • Used the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire (OSLQ) in Spring 2010

Consists of six subscales

    • environment structuring
    • goal setting
    • time management
    • help seeking
    • task strategies
    • self-evaluation
  • More than 2200 online learner respondents…
learner difficulties in current chronotopic shift
Learner Difficulties in Current Chronotopic Shift
  • Initial results suggesting learners are struggling in some areas of the transition to virtual learning environments
lower scores 2 75 2 95 0 4
Lower scores (2.75-2.95) (0-4)

37. Although we don’t have to attend daily classes I try to distribute my studying consistently across days in a way that gives me enough time to be successful in my online classes.

36. I try to schedule time every day or every week to study for my online courses, and I observe the schedule

41. I am persistent in getting help from my online instructor when I need it

42. I reflect on my learning in online courses to examine my understanding of what I have learned.

43. I ask myself a lot of questions about the course material when studying for an online course

lower scores 1 74 2 68 0 4
Lower scores (1.74-2.68) (0-4)

33. I prepare my questions before joining in online discussions

35. I allocate extra studying time for my online courses because I know its time demanding

38. I find someone who is knowledgeable in course content so that I can consult with him or her when I need help

44. I interact with my classmates to help me understand how I am doing in my online classes

39. I share my problems with my classmates online so we know what we are struggling with and how to solve our problems

current results
Current Results
  • Suggest that students in blended environments have better self efficacy
  • Physical presence of instructors appears to foster confidence in learners
  • What can we do with online instructional design to help?
thank you
Thank You
  • Peter Shea
  • University at Albany, SUNY
  • pshea@uamail.albany.edu
  • 518-442-4009