The March on Rome . 1848. the spirit of revolution was in the air – with uprisings in Vienna, Paris, Sicily, the Piedmont and in Lombardy and Venice
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the spirit of revolution was in the air – with uprisings in Vienna, Paris, Sicily, the Piedmont and in Lombardy and Venice
In the latter two states, the King of Piedmont and Sardinia, Charles Albert, pledged support for the uprisings against the Austrians since Pope Pius IX and Ferdinanad II of Naples had pledged support. Ferdinand and Pius however withdrew their support resulting in the defeat of the rebels and forcing the abdication of Charles Albert in favor of Victor Emanuel II.
February 5 – Garibaldi is named as a deputy of the Roman assembly and suggested setting up a republican form of Government, praising the assassin of Rossi as having “recovered the steel of Marcus Brutus” (Bondanella 160) ( Count Pellegrino Rossi, head of the papal government had been assassinated by an angry crowd during the revolution)
April - July - the Pope sends in French troops to restore the city to Papal power fighting in the streets breaks out, Garibaldi’s battle cry “Roma o morte” is taken up by the citizens of Rome and later became the cry of the Risorgimento.
“But in the morning of the 28th seven French batteries opened a murderous fire in unison. Indescribable and terrifying beyond all measure was that whizzing of innumerable missiles to which were added hundreds of bombs catapulted by the enemy mortars simultaneously. The cannons of the Republicans were practically stifled and the Villa Savorelli, Garibaldi’s headquarters, was reduced to a heap of rubble.
The Roman people behaved admirably during these days of supreme ordeal. Driven out of their burning dwellings old people, children and mothers with their infants at the breast wandered in the lanes in the depth of the night under a rain of murderous missiles. The din of war and heart-rending lamentations echoed in the streets. But not one voice was heard which spoke of capitulation.
Only one shout drowned out all the others: “Ecco un Pio Nono, ecco la benedizione del Papa, ecco le bombe cristianissime!” [“Here is your Pius IX, here is his papal benediction, here are the most Christian bombs!”] which was heard all around whenever a bullet came whizzing by or a grenade exploded. Who will ever be able to wipe out from the memory of the Roman people the gruesome remembrances of these nights?” (Melena, Elpis. Garibaldi’s Memoirs. Ed. Anthony P. Campanella. Sarasota: International Institute of Garibaldi Studies, 1981. p. 130-1)
But the Republican forces were eventually overpowered and capitulated on July 1Garibaldi flees through central Italy, his Brazilian born wife Anita, his comrade in arms, dies during the retreat, Garibaldi disbands his men and then goes to N. Africa, U.S.A. and Paris
1859Piedmont has come to the aid of the French in the Crimean War – and therefore, Camillo Cavour who is now the Prime Minister of Piedmont and Sardinia –is assured of French support in the event of war against Austria
fighting commences with Garibaldi leading the troops and the Austrians cede Lombardy to Piedmont
Venice, until now under Austrian control, is ceded to Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War and then to Italy in return for its support of Prussia during the conflict; Garibaldi led the Italian troops in this conflict