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Ration. A ration is the total amount of feed that an animal consumes in 24 hours.

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ration
Ration
  • A ration is the total amount of feed that an animal consumes in 24 hours.
  • Diet – The type and amount of feed an animal receives in its ration. Diets should be based on the needs of the animal being fed and the nutrient content of the feed available. There are four basic steps that should be followed when developing a balanced ration.
1 identify the needs of the animal
1.) Identify the needs of the animal
  • The first thing that must be done is to determine that nutrient needs of the animal. This is done by identifying the kind, age, weight, and function of the animal for which the ration is being formulated. The nutrient needs requirements are called feeding standards.
2 identify available feedstuffs
2.) Identify available feedstuffs
  • A feedstuff is an ingredient used in making feed for animals. The producer must then choose which feedstuffs to include in the ration. The decision is based on nutrient value of the feedstuff and availability.
3 calculate the amount of each feed stuff in a ration
3. Calculate the amount of each feed stuff in a ration.
  • Use the Pearson Square to determine how much feed is enough.
4 check ration against nutrient needs of an animal
4. Check ration against nutrient needs of an animal.
  • When calculating a ration you will want to make sure that the ration includes all the needs of the animal.
  • How would you determine that?
so why is feed analysis important
So, why is feed analysis important?
  • Because a balanced ration will increase gain, decrease expense, and increase proficiency.
  • Feed analysis is the process of determining the nutrients in a feedstuff or prepared mixed feed.
so back to our feed tag
So, back to our Feed Tag
  • What do you find on a feed tag?
    • Dry Matter – is the weight of feed materials after moisture has been driven out.
    • Crude Protein – is the nitrogen content of feed multiplied by 6.25 (constant factor). Feedstuffs with higher crude protein are typically more nutritious.
    • Fat – helps with vitamins ADEK.
continued feed tag analysis
(continued) feed tag analysis

Crude Fiber – determined by boiling the feed material in an acid and using lab procedures to dry the feed. The weight before and after drying is measured and is used to calculate percent.

Minerals – let us look at mineral deficiencies and what it causes. (B3-3C)

Vitamins – often added as a supplement to feed, let us look at some of these deficiencies. (B3-3D)

six essential nutrients needed by animals
Six Essential Nutrients needed by Animals
  • Water – makes up 75% of animal body weight. (regulates body temp. and biochemical processes)
  • Carbohydrates – should make up 75% of diet. (unused carbs will become fat)
  • Fats – highest amount of energy (2.25x more than carbs)
  • Protein –made up of amino acids
  • Minerals – aid in skeletal growth. (ex: Ca)
  • Vitamins – fat soluble stored in fat and used as needed –(ADEK) Water soluble – (CB) dissolved by water and needs to be consumed daily.
time to balance rations with the pearson square
Time to Balance Rations with the Pearson Square
  • Get out your calculators!!!!
  • After learning how to balance rations you will be able to design your own feed for your own animals.