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Ration Formulation. 2/05/2001 ANS 336. 1.Steps in Balancing a Ration. Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated. Factors to be considered Age Sex Body Size Type of production Intensity of production.

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ration formulation

Ration Formulation

2/05/2001

ANS 336

1 steps in balancing a ration
1.Steps in Balancing a Ration
  • Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated.
  • Factors to be considered
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Body Size
    • Type of production
    • Intensity of production
2 steps in balancing a ration
Ruminants: Determine what feeds are available and list their respective nutrient compositions

Dry matter

Protein

Energy

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A

Vitamin D if confined

Non ruminants same as Ruminant, but:

Dry matter

Protein

Essential AA

Energy

Essential Fatty acids

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A,D, E and B complex

Minerals

2.Steps in Balancing a Ration
3 steps in balancing a ration
3.Steps in Balancing a Ration
  • Feed cost
  • Processing Cost
  • Transportation Cost
  • Storage Cost
  • Antioxidant
  • Refrigeration Cost
  • Nutritive value loss with storage
4 steps in balancing a ration
4.Steps in Balancing a Ration
  • Balance a ration that is useable.
    • Can they eat that much, can they utilize that source of the ingredient.
  • Limitation of feed ingredients
    • Consumption levels
    • Limiting values such as: amount of forage that can be consumed.
    • Wheat as percentage of diet
    • Cottonseed limitations
5 steps in balancing a ration
5.Steps in Balancing a Ration
  • Convert to Dry Matter Basis:

1. Conversion of feed nutrients from an as fed to a dry matter basis:

    • a.     Assume alfalfa silage analyzed 7 % crude protein on an as-fed basis and contained 40% dry matter. What percent crude protein would the alfalfa contain when expressed on a dry matter basis? The solution for this example can be obtained by the following equation:
    • % Nutrient ( As fed basis) = % Nutrient (dry matter basis)

% Feed Dry Matter 100 % dry matter

methods of formulation
Methods of Formulation
  • Square Method (Pearson Square)
  • Trial and Error
  • Simultaneous Equation Method
  • 2 X 2 Matrix method
  • Computer Method
  • WAG Method – not recommended
determining consumption
Determining Consumption
  • Cow will eat about 2 % of her body weight in forage
    • 2 % X 1433 = 28.66 lbs
    • 1.2 – 2 % of her body weight in Concentrate [ ].
    • Hay is 14#
    • Corn Silage is 14 #
      • 40 X 35% (DM) = 14 #
needs from concentrate mix
Needs from Concentrate Mix
  • Divide TDN from concentrate (16.5) by the % TDN in the mixture (75.3).
    • 16.5/0.753 = 21.9 lbs of TDN to meet energy req.
  • Multiply 21.9 times 10.3% CP in mix
    • 21.9 X .103 = 2.26
    • 3.69 (needed) – 2.26 = 1.43 still needed
  • Substitute 175 # of SBOM to concentrate mix. In place of that amount of corn .
trial and error guess
Trial and error - Guess
  • 16.5 lbs / .746 = 22.1 of conc to supply 16.5 lbs of TDN
  • 3.69 lbs protein needed/ .163 of protein = 22.63 = 22.63.
  • Therefore, we feed 22.63 lbs of concentrate to meet all requirements with a little extra energy.
holstein cows consumption
Holstein Cows consumption
  • Cows will eat approximately 3.0 to 4.0 % of the body weight in dry matter depending on the stage of lactation.
  • 2 % from Forage and the remainder from Concentrate mixes.
  • Next we need to figure the NDF amount to see what level of forage she can consume. Consume.
  • 1.2 % BW in NDF with 0.9 % from Forages and 0.3 % from Concentrates.
ndf requirements
NDF requirements
  • 1.2 % X 1433 = 17.2 lbs NDF
  • 0.9 % BW from forage = 12.9
    • 12.6 X 55.0 = 6.93
    • 14.0 X 59.0 = 8.26

15.19

pearson square
Pearson’ Square
  • Simple nutrient needs are met with simple feed formulas.
  • Lesser values are subtracted from greater values.
  • Recorded diagonally.
  • One feed must have a value higher than the desired value and one must have a value lower than the desired value.
slide22
Pearson Square

A

=

C

X

B

D

=

Total

A – X D

B – X C

Need Percentage

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