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Today’s Agenda. Review Reconstruction Tests must be signed if received a D or F Unit Overview Pre-test Project Exit Ticket HW #1. Unit #2. Industrialization & Movement of People. Industrialization & Movement of People. Key Learning –

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today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • Review Reconstruction
    • Tests must be signed if received a D or F
  • Unit Overview
  • Pre-test
  • Project
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW #1
unit 2

Unit #2

Industrialization & Movement of People

industrialization movement of people
Industrialization & Movement of People
  • Key Learning –
    • How Industrialization and Migration transformed the United States
  • Unit Essential Question –
    • Was dealing with technological advancements a problem in the US during the period of industrialization (compared to today)? Why are those issues difficult? Is this a pattern of continuity or change? To what extent can we learn from studying historical responses to societal problems?
industrial revolution western expansion
Industrial Revolution & Western Expansion
  • Standards – Economics 1a; Geography 1a
  • Concept EQ – To what extent did economic self-interest and technological advancement contribute to industrialization?
western expansion industrial revolution pre test
Western Expansion/Industrial Revolution Pre-Test
  • Easy way or Hard way?
  • Clear off desks
  • No talking
  • Invention Project
u 2 hw 1
U 2 HW 1
  • Read Chapter 18 Sections 1 & 2
exit ticket
Exit Ticket
  • Answer question on index card and turn into bin before leaving class
    • What groups of people did Americans come into contact with as the country expanded westward?
today s agenda1
Today’s Agenda
  • Lesson Overview
  • PPT
  • Activity
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW #2
western expansion
think pair share
  • Create a list of ideas that come to mind when you think of Native Americans
    • Where did these ideas come from?
      • TV? Movies? Reading?
  • Be prepared to share with class.
gold and silver
Gold And Silver
  • Comstock Lode
    • “Danged blue stuff”
      • Richest silver mind in the world
    • Mining camp to boom town
      • Settlers – US and Immigrants
impact of the boom towns
Impact of the Boom Towns
  • Boom Town – grew near major mining sites
    • Hotels, Restaurants
    • Laundromats
    • Boarding houses
  • Ghost Towns – result of mine drying up
  • Problems –
    • Pollution, deforestation
    • Mistreatment of immigrants
the railroad
The Railroad
  • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Union Pacific and Central Pacific
    • Promontory Point Utah – May 10, 1869
    • Immigrant Workers
  • Indian Removal Continues
    • Read and use map to answer all questions in complete sentences on a separate piece of paper
indian people
Indian People
  • 360K Indian people live in the West (1860).
    • Mainly occupying the Great Plains.
      • Reliance on buffalo and horse
      • Culture – language, religion
  • U.S. Congress ignores many treaties and open territory to settlers
subduing the indians
Subduing the Indians
  • Native Americans –
    • Forced to sign treaties and move to reservations
    • US military to protect settlers
    • US Goals – acquire land, “civilize” savages = convert to Christianity
  • Problems caused –
    • Reservations moved and land reduced
    • Mass buffalo killing
activity western expansion
Activity – Western Expansion
  • Partner up
  • Complete Western Expansion into Native American Land
    • Must have 5 questions for each white settler and Native American chief (10 total)
    • Create caption
u 2 hw 2
U 2 HW 2
exit ticket1
Exit Ticket
  • Why do you think the Native Americans were treated this way by the US government? Explain your answer
western expansion1
Western Expansion
  • LEQ – How did expansion westward impact the native people and change to the geography?
  • Vocab
  • General Custer Oregon Trail
  • Wounded Knee Homestead Act
  • Chief Joseph
  • Chief Sitting Bull
warring sioux
Warring Sioux
  • Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds
    • Raided settlements and harassed miners
    • Sitting Bull
      • Leader of non-treaty Sioux
      • Strong fighting expertise
sand creek 1864
Sand Creek (1864)

•US army massacred

Cheyenne, Arapahoe

Older men, women,

And children.

•Eastern Colorado

little bighorn
Little Bighorn
  • Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876
  • 600 troops marched on Little Bighorn River
    • Custer separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battle
    • This group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux
  • Defeat angered the army who became even more ruthless
wounded knee creek
Wounded Knee Creek
  • December 29, 1890
    • Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee
    • Someone fired a shot
    • The soldiers then open fired
      • More than 300 Indians killed in minutes
chief joseph
Chief Joseph
  • Leader of Nez Perce
  • 1876 – ordered off land to reservation in Idaho
    • Group of braves attacked settlers
    • Nez Perce fled
    • Montana– US Soldiers caught Nez Perce, attacking men, women and children
    • Sept 1877 – caught 40 miles from Canada
      • Joseph – “I am tired of fighting”
  • Nez Perce moved to reservation
legendary wild west
Legendary Wild West
  • Dime novels glamorize west.
  • T. Roosevelt (1880’s) calls it a place for “vigorous manhood.”
  • Wild Bill Hickcock, Jesse James & “Billy the Kid” take on mythical standing.
  • “Buffalo Bill” Cody and Annie Oakley perform in circus like shows.
    • Bring the west to those who would never reach it in the Wild West show tour.
  • American Indians Myths and Legends – “Rabbit Boy”
    • Read and answer questions
u2 hw 3
U2 HW 3
exit ticket2
Exit Ticket
  • Answer question on index card
  • Turn in before end of class
  • How did American expansion in the West lead to the near destruction of the Native American nations there?
reading writing assignment
Reading & Writing Assignment
  • Read the following article –
  • Answer the prompt below in a 5 paragraph essay, be sure to include S.R.A. and cite specific examples from the reading
u2 hw 4
U2 HW 4
exit ticket3
Exit Ticket
  • Were the Native Americans correct in their reaction as the United States expanded westward? Cite specific examples.
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • LEQ – How did government policies during the period of industrialization affect the competitiveness of markets?
  • Vocab
    • Robber Barons Social Darwinism
    • Captains of Industry Trust
    • Andrew Carnegie Sherman Antitrust Act
    • John D Rockefeller Horizontal Consolidation
    • Laissez-Faire Vertical Consolidation
    • Monopoly Economy of scale
    • Cartels
create a definition
Create a Definition
  • Create definitions for the following terms:
  • “Mom and Pop” Business
  • “Big Business”

Why are the two terms different?


Carousel Brainstorming

  • Count off by 5s
  • Move to the paper labeled with your number
  • Use the marker and answer the question
  • You will have 2 minutes
  • After time is up, move to the next sheet of paper….1 moves to 2; 2 moves to 3; etc.
  • Take 2 minutes and see if there is anything else missing from your original question
  • Collectively write a brief summary tying everything together that was written
  • Be prepared to share with class
5 areas
5 Areas
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt and Consolidation
  • New Ways of Doing Business
  • John D Rockefeller and Horizontal Consolidation
  • Andrew Carnegie and Vertical Consolidation
  • Monopolies and Cartels
teaching the class
Teaching the class
  • Use the information gathered on the chart and create a power point explaining the topic you have been assigned
improvement in transportation
Improvement in Transportation
  • Railroads
    • Before Civil War
    • Post Civil War
      • Creating a Network
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt
    • Son of poor farmer
    • Consolidated all railroad lines in North East
    • Death – 4500 miles from NYC to Great Lakes
growth of big business
Growth of Big Business
  • Robber Barons
    • Built fortunes stealing form public
    • Drained natural resources
    • Corrupted politicians
    • Ruined companies
  • Captains of Industry
    • Built factories expanded markets
    • Created jobs
    • Founded museums, libraries, universities
andrew carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
    • Cut prices to drive out competition
    • Controlled entire steel industry
    • “Gospel of Wealth”
      • “The Man who dies rich…….dies disgraced.”
      • Distributed $350 million
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • Application of Darwin’s evolution theory
  • Society should do as little as possible to interfere with the process by which a person should succeed or fail
  • Government should stay out of the affairs of business
  • Those most “fit” to survive – succeed and become rich
  • What policy does this describe?
    • Laissez-Faire
monopolies and cartels
Monopolies and Cartels
  • Monopoly – business bought out competition and all patents
  • Cartel – loose association of businesses making same product
    • Goal – reduce harmful effects of competition on business
    • Limited supply to keep price up
the standard oil trust
The Standard Oil Trust
  • John D Rockefeller
    • Formed Standard Oil Company
    • Undersold competitors
    • Used refunds on transportation costs
vertical and horizontal consolidation
Vertical and Horizontal Consolidation
  • Vertical – control all phases of a product’s development
    • EXAMPLE????
  • Horizontal – bringing together many firms in same business
    • EXAMPLE????
labor and kids vs big business
Labor and Kids vs. Big Business
  • Open Labor and Kids vs Big Business PPT Activity
  • Work due by end of class
labor and kids vs big business1
Labor and Kids vs. Big Business


  • Industrialization and Conflict in America: 1840–1875 is an article that describes aspects of the Industrial Revolution from the human point of view.  Manufacturing, inventions and economic growth had a distinct impact on society.  These changes altered the way people perceived the world in which they lived.  This impact was most evident in the nineteenth century emphasis on family, nature and art.  After reading the essay, answer the following questions:
  • According to the article, from which two countries did most people emigrate during this period of the Industrial Revolution?
  • According to the article, which two inventions helped the spread of industry?
  • According to the author, why did people want to escape urban, industrial areas?
  • How does Thomas Cole's painting, The Oxbow, represent a reaction to the Industrial Revolution?  Do you think that it is a positive or negative reaction?
  • How did industrialization influence westward expansion?

Industrialization and Conflict in America: 1840–1875David Jaffe, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Northern manufacturing extended the use of power-driven machines to a wider range of commodities in the middle decades of the century. By 1860, the United States was second only to Great Britain and France in manufacturing. Stationary steam engines powering advanced machinery allowed factories to set up in the nation's largest cities (1999.396). Affordable books and color prints from the new printing presses disseminated new fashions and ideas connecting urban and rural, East and West. By 1850, nine out of every ten adult white Americans could read, and millions bought books. Women in particular became prodigious readers, as well as the authors of many books and magazine articles (17.104). The nation's population nearly quadrupled between 1814 and 1860, to over 31 million, swelled by an influx of immigrants. Fleeing the potato famine in Ireland and revolutionary turmoil in the German states, foreign-born workers increasingly replaced native-born labor, toiling in factories and crowding into the working-class sections of expanding cities.The telegraph (invented by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844), and then the railroad, knit together the regions; the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. City merchants built stores opulent enough to be dubbed "palaces of consumption." Urban elites competed in a rivalry over the status of their cities, commissioning public sculptures of the nation's leaders and heroes, therefore providing opportunities for sculptors (97.13.1). The availability of factory-produced goods such as parlor suites of furniture made the trappings of success affordable to the middle class. New forms of manufacture emerged: arms manufacturers and Connecticut clockmakers turned to standardized parts to speed production. The rapid shift from an agrarian to industrial economy and the growth of the business sector, with their attendant social and economic dislocations, spurred the development of a powerful ideology in which private and public spheres were considered antithetical. The domestic sphere, the realm of home and family, no longer a site of production as in the eighteenth century, would now be seen as a haven against the impersonal, competitive forces of capitalism (66.242.27). Middle-class women would (and were expected to) retire from the workforce to their proper sphere and attend to their primary duties-child rearing and homemaking (28.148.1). This public/private divide was echoed in an idealization of nature and the rural against the noisome, polluted city and its expanding immigrant population. American architect and landscape designer Andrew Jackson Downing (1815–1852) proclaimed the home a "powerful means of civilization" and a remedy for social evils. In his many popular publications, including The Architecture of Country Houses (1850) and Horticulturalist Magazine, often illustrated by architect Alexander J. Davis (1803–1892), Downing recommended the building of country homes where one could cleanse the soul by escaping the psychologically and physically unhealthy aspects of urban life. Reflecting many of Downing's ideas, the first suburban developments aspired to unify nature and architecture, offering a semi-rural retreat from blighted industrial areas (24.66.67).


Meanwhile, America's artists, such as Thomas Cole (1801–1848), founder of the Hudson River School, exalted the national landscape in the midst of its very transformation (08.228). Natural wonders such as Niagara Falls (62.256.3) or wilderness areas such as the Hudson River Valley were popularized by the Hudson River School artists, and increasingly became accessible to travelers and tourists. The virtual nature worship indulged by American artists was nowhere more extremely expressed than in the intimate yet highly objective stipple watercolor style applied to still life and landscapes by American followers of the English critic John Ruskin (1819–1900), whose "truth to nature" aesthetic philosophy gained wide attention during the Civil War era (82.9.1). American genre painters focused on a nostalgic view of displaced American types (33.61). Some cultural commentators of the changing American landscape, like Cole, offered a pessimistic view of the changes wrought by technology; while other painters and writers joined most Americans in a celebration of national progress. Closer to home, urban planners and landscape architects such as Frederick Law Olmsted (1822–1903) and Calvert Vaux (1824–1895) brought nature into the city by building urban parks such as New York's Central Park; Vaux went on to design both The Metropolitan Museum of Art (1874–80) and the American Museum of Natural History (1874–77). The dynamism of western expansion extended across the Plains to the Pacific Coast, accompanied by the continued removal of Native Americans from their lands and, in 1846–48, war with Mexico. Great finds of precious metals in the American West (72.3) transformed luxury goods, such as gold and silver jewelry. The annexation of western territories doomed earlier political compromises on the extension of slavery. Accelerated industrialization only accentuated sectionalism and the differences between North and South. Southern planters grew increasingly dependent upon slave labor for massive amounts of cotton production (the South accounted for two-thirds of the world's cotton production in 1850), which fed the factories of the North and Great Britain. Slavery's extension into western lands caused a great forced migration of African Americans. Debates over the future extension of slavery fractured the existing national party system along regional lines. The election of Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860, with his vision of new lands being free of slavery, induced the southern states to secede from the Union, and the horrendous Civil War between North and South ensued. The North triumphed after four long years, due to its greater economic, material, and demographic resources. The era of Reconstruction introduced a period of debate over the political and economic rights of freed slaves (1979.394) and the role of federal power in the reunited states. The Civil War and its aftermath provided an opportunity for artists and photographers in the illustrated press and sculptors in the public sphere to commemorate the heroism and sacrifice of Abraham Lincoln and the common soldier alike.Jaffee, David. "Industrialization and Conflict in America: 1840–1875". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. (April 2007)

labor and kids vs big business2
Labor and Kids vs. Big Business

Factory Work

Factory Time Table

  • How many hours per day did workers average? 
  • What hours did the factory operate from March 20 through September 19?
  • What hours did it operate from September 20 through March 19?
  • Why were the workers' hours different at different times of the year?
  • How is the Lowell Mill work day different from most work days today?  Which would you prefer?

Lewiston Mill Rules

  • Some of the rules at Lewiston Mill are similar to rules at work today, and many are different. 
  • What is one rule that is similar to today?
  • What is one rule that is different from today?
labor and kids vs big business3
Labor and Kids vs. Big Business

Children at Work

Choose two of the following children and read about his/her experiences working in a factory.  Based on what you read, list at least three reasons why you would not want to work in a factory under similar conditions. 

  • David Rowland
  • Joseph Herbergam
  • Hannah Brown
  • Elizabeth Bently
labor and kids vs big business4
Labor and Kids vs Big Business


Andrew Carnegie

  • What industry is Carnegie known for influencing?
  • How did Carnegie contribute to society?

John D. Rockefeller

  • What was Rockefeller's first business?
  • In what other industry was Rockefeller involved?
  • What was his philanthropic (charitable) impact?
  • Why did some people believe that Rockefeller had a negative impact?
  • In what ways did he have a positive impact?
  • Explain why you think his overall impact was either positive or negative.
u 2 hw 5
U 2 HW 5
exit ticket4
Exit Ticket
  • Use an index card and answer the question below. Due before you leave class.
  • Explain the terms trust and monopoly. Write two sentences for each term. One sentence explaining the advantages of such an organization for its member companies. The other sentence explaining its negative aspects.
industrial revolution1
Industrial Revolution
  • LEQ – How did increased productivity on farms and in factories affect the competitive nature of markets?
  • Vocab –
    • Brooklyn BridgeAlexander G Bell
    • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Andrew Carnegie
    • Thomas Edison
think pair share1


  • Which of the above inventions is the most important? Why?
  • Partner up and discuss your responses
  • Be prepared to share with class.




a different time
A Different Time
  • Imagine a world in which there was no electricity, no indoor plumbing, no cell phones, no automobiles…..
  • Let’s pretend that our world becomes that TOMORROW!
  • What would happen?
technological revolution
Technological Revolution
  • 1790-1860 – 36,000 patents
  • 1860-1900 – 500,000 patents
    • Phonograph and typewriter
  • Electrical Power – Thomas Edison
    • “Wizard of Menlo Park”
    • Electric Light Bulb, phonograph, motion picture camera
  • How will electricity impact other areas?
  • Samuel Morse – Telegraph
    • Western Union
  • Alexander G Bell - Telephone
the airplane
The Airplane

Wilbur Wright Orville Wright

Kitty Hawk, NC – December 7, 1903

model t automobile
Model T Automobile

Henry Ford – Assembly Line and Mass ProductionI want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product!

u s patents granted
U. S. Patents Granted

1790s  276 patents issued.

1990s  1,119,220 patents issued.

industrial revolution webquest
Industrial Revolution Webquest
  • This is an individual assignment
  • Use one of the laptops in the cart
u2 hw 6
U2 HW 6
exit ticket5
Exit Ticket
  • Use an index card and answer the question below. Due before you leave class.
  • Select any invention from the early 1900s and explain why it was the most important during that time. Be sure to cite specific examples.
today s agenda2
Today’s Agenda
  • Lesson Overview
  • PPT
  • Activity
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW #5
industrial revolution2
Industrial Revolution
  • LEQ – How did increased productivity during the period of industrialization impact the actions of consumers, producers and the government?
  • Vocab
    • Piecework scabs
    • Frederick Taylor anarchists
    • Socialism
    • Knights of Labor
    • American Federation of Labor
    • Collective Bargaining
  • Create a list of words the come to mind when you think of the word above.
  • Switch your notebook with a partner. Circle all of the positive words and phrases on the list.
  • Discuss with your partner the top three words or phrases you can use to describe the word WORK
  • Be prepared to share with class.
public reaction to big business
Public Reaction to Big Business
  • “It is only too evident that the cause now at work in Lynn may render it rich and prosperous as a city, but with a population of overworked, underpaid hirelings, hopelessly dependent upon employers who act upon the good old rule, the simple plan—that they may take who have the power, and they may keep who can.”
growing workforce
Growing Workforce
  • 1860-1900 – 14 million immigrants
    • Seeking jobs
    • “streets were paved with gold”
  • Late 1800s – 8-9 million moved to cities from farms
a hard life for factory laborer
A Hard Life for Factory Laborer
  • Low Wages
  • Child Labor
the industrial laborer at work
The Industrial Laborer at Work
  • Work Day – 12 Hours a day; 6 days a week
  • 1900 – 10 hours a day
    • “If you don’t come in on Sunday, you can forget about Monday”
  • Frederick Taylor – Efficiency Movement
    • Developed time-and-motion studies
hardships at factor work
Hardships at Factor Work
  • Steel Mills
  • Textile Mills
  • Coal Mines
rich and poor
Rich and Poor
  • 1890 Census – richest 9% of country help 75% of wealth
    • Workers – few hundred dollars a year
socialism in the industrial age
Socialism in the Industrial Age
  • Socialism – economic and political philosophy that advocates collective or government ownership of factories and property
    • Goal – redistribute wealth
    • Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto
    • US – threatened ideals of private property and free enterprise
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • Knights of Labor – Philly 1869
    • Organized all working men and women
    • Goals – 8 hour day, end to child labor


labor unions1
Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)
    • Samuel Gompers (1866)
    • Skilled Workers
    • Goals – increase wages, better hours and working conditions


friction between labor and employers
Friction between Labor and Employers
  • Employers – forbid union meetings
    • Fired union organizers
  • “yellow dog” contract – worker promised to not join union or strike


railroad strike 1877
Railroad Strike 1877
  • Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
    • Announced 10% wage cut
    • “Double Headers”
    • Strikes broke out
    • Owners called in troops
    • Strikers burned railroad company property
    • President Hayes – sent in troops
  • Haymarket Square, 1866
  • Homestead 1892
  • Pullman, 1894
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911)

New York City

All doors were locked but one door which was blocked by the fire.

7th, 8th, and 9th floors were engulfed in flames, and the fire ladders were not long enough

150 people died

As a result New York approved safety laws to help protect factory workers

The Triangle Fire


The Tragedy

  • People were willing to jump several stories rather than burn to death

Pauline Grossman, 18 years old, who was injured by leaping from a window of the factory as the fire was gaining headway on the eighth floor, says three male employees of the factory made a human chain of their bodies and swung across a narrow alleyway to the building fronting in Greene Street. She declares a number of person's passed across the men's bodies and escaped from the burning building by entering a window of the building opposite.

"As the people crossing upon the human bridge crowded more and more over the men's bodies the weight upon the body of the centre man became too great and his back was broken. She said he fell to the passageway below and the other two men lost their holds upon the window sills and fell. Persons who were crossing upon the human bridge dropped with them to the passageway."

  • Railroad Strikes – Primary vs Secondary Sources
  • Railroad Strikes – Guided Reading
exit ticket6
Exit Ticket
  • Use an index card and answer the question below. Due before you leave class.
  • Go to page 556
  • Use the Causes and Effects Chart. Complete the question
u2 hw 7
U2 HW 7
western expansion industrial revolution test


Put Notebook and Historical Events on my desk

Get out Writing “Cheat Sheet” if completed

Get out separate piece of paper for writing portion of test

today s agenda3
Today’s Agenda
  • Review Western Expansion/Industrial Revolution Test
  • Introduce Urbanization
    • Pre-Test
  • Lesson Overview
  • PPT
  • Activity
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW
  • Standards – Economics 1a; Geography 1a
  • Concept EQ – How was the US population affected by hierarchy, accessibility, diffusion and complementarity?
summary of unit
Summary of Unit
  • At the high school level, students should understand that over time, as successive waves of diffusion wash over particular places, the nature of culture in those places changes. Moreover, some have argued that growing cultural diversity among places is being replaced with a slow movement towards cultural similarity. The loss of distinct languages and the spread of English are associated with a growth in global communication and human migration. Students should understand the potential for such trends to reduce cultural diversity among places and recognize evidence such as the assimilation of immigrants.
  • In addition to culture, places are distinctive because of the economic activities found there. Students need to understand the processes that account for differences in industry in different parts of the world. While the location of raw materials influences the location of industrial enterprises, students should understand that there are other influential factors like distance to market and transport costs and services. Human capital is another major factor. For instance, some areas may appeal to immigrants because of the growth of certain industries.
summary of unit1
Summary of Unit
  • Distance also affects the location of industry. Originally, water power sites attracted industry because power could not be moved. When coal became common, power could be moved, but coal was so heavy it was cheaper to use it on its site of production so industry gravitated to coal fields. When the amount of coal needed in manufacturing and the diversity of raw materials in a finished product expanded, industry shifted to major metropolitan centers where the market for products was greatest. Other factors such as available labor, cost of electricity, type of living conditions, and tax incentives all play their part in the location of industry. Students need to understand how these factors affect the character of a given place.
  • Finally, places display particular arrangements of form or built environment (the organization of buildings, streets, and open spaces). Many American cities adopted the grid-iron street plan. Some are divided into ethnic neighborhoods, while others show distinct evidence of cultural assimilation to the area. Each of these settlement forms contributes to place distinctiveness.
unit key terms
Unit Key Terms
  • -- Hierarchy (patterns at a detailed scale may be related to patterns at a more general scale)
  • -- Accessibility (how easily one place can be reached from another)
  • -- Diffusion (how people or things move in certain directions at certain speeds)
  • -- Complementarity (the mutual exchange of people or goods among places usually occurs over the shortest possible distances)
big ideas and enduring understanding
Big Ideas and Enduring Understanding

Big Ideas

  • Migration
  • Culture
  • Place

Enduring Understanding

  • Places are unique associations of natural environments and human cultural modifications.
  • Concepts of site and situation can explain the uniqueness of places. As site or situation change, so also does the character of a place.
knowledge and skills
Knowledge and Skills

Students will know…

  • Settlement forms of 19th century America.
  • Reasons for immigration to America.
  • Why some places are more or less culturally diverse than others.
  • How migration patterns impacted American society.

Students will be able to…

  • Explain the reasons for culturally diverse and similar regions in 19th century America.
  • Explain the push-pull effect of immigration and subsequent settlement patterns in America.
  • Analyze the effects culture change had on economic activity.
  • LEQ – How has the culture of places in America changed as a result of migration patterns?
  • Vocabulary
    • Assimilation
    • Ethnic Group
a b c graffiti
A-B-C Graffiti
  • Get into pairs
  • Draw a rectangular box at the top of a sheet of paper
    • Write “Migration” in the box
    • Fold the paper down the middle to create 2 columns
    • Letter A to M down the left side
    • Letter N to Z down the right side
    • Create a list of terms that define or explain the concept of Migration
    • For Example – “F” use the word Freedom
a b c graffiti1
A-B-C Graffiti
  • Go through the terms you have written and decide on the best three terms that describe or explain the concept of Migration
  • Be prepared to share with class
a b c graffiti list of terms
A-B-C Graffiti List of Terms
  • (+) for positive; (-) for negative
u2 hw 8
U2 HW 8
t p s and categorizing
T/P/S and Categorizing
  • Copy and answer question in notebook –
    • Why would someone choose to emigrate from their homeland?
  • Share your answer
  • Be prepared to share with class
t p s and categorizing1
T/P/S and Categorizing
  • Which is the most motivating to immigrants in the 19th century
push and pull factors
Push and Pull Factors
  • Push Factors – reasons a person wants to leave a town
    • Examples –
      • Lack of work
      • Polluted drinking water
      • High crime rates
      • Lack of recreational facilities
      • Cultural pressures
      • Climate issues
      • Environmental dangers
push and pull factors1
Push and Pull Factors
  • Pull Factors – reasons people would be attracted to a particular place
    • Examples
      • Opposite of PUSH Factors
      • Well paying jobs
    • Decision of where to go dependent on information
      • Word of mouth/family connections = “Scoop”
t p s and categorizing2
T/P/S and Categorizing
  • Get back into pairs
  • Go through your list of reasons and categorize them as “push” or “pull” factors
  • Select which factor would be the most motivating reason to move
  • Be prepared to share with class
checking for understanding
Checking for Understanding
  • Individually, answer the following sentence stems on separate piece of paper.
    • Push and Pull factors are similar because they both _____.
    • Push and Pull factors are different because ___.
making comparisons
Making Comparisons
  • Use the column chart to explore “push-pull” factors for migration from various European countries beginning in the 19th century.
  • Use your textbook or websites listed on the worksheet.
discussion web
Discussion Web
  • Copy and answer the following questions in your notebook -
    • Which factors were consistent from immigrants from different countries?
    • What cultural differences were apparent in these groups of immigrants?
  • Pick a 3rd partner and discuss your answers
  • You must have evidence to support your response
discussion web1
Discussion Web
  • Partner up with another pair to form a discussion group
  • Share responses with group
  • Be prepared to share final answers with class
checking for understanding1
Checking for Understanding
  • Answer individually on separate piece of paper in COMPLETE SENTECES
  • Why did many Europeans move to America during the 19th century? Explain your answer.

This strategy includes four basic steps to set the stage for learning:

  • L – LISTEN
  • R – READ
coming to the new world
Coming to the New World
  • What was the first thing that new immigrants would see as they came to the US?
  • Ellis Island (NYC)
    • Pass inspection
  • Angel Island (CA)
old vs new immigrants
Old vs. New Immigrants
  • Early 1800s: Old Immigrants – Northern and Western Europe
  • Late 1800s: New Immigrants – Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia & Latin America
adjusting to new land
Adjusting to new Land
  • Dreams vs Reality
    • No money
    • Belongings were taken
    • CA – Asians could not own land
    • Where will new immigrants live?
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods
    • Ethnic Groups
    • Assimilation
anti immigrant feelings
Anti-Immigrant Feelings
  • Why would there be resentment against the new immigrants?
  • Could you easily single out certain groups of the new immigrants?
  • Limits on immigration
    • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Read the articles listed below. They are associated with the ideas of “old immigration” and “new immigration”
  • Complete 3 paragraph S.R.A. essay
  • Answer the following questions –
    • Explain the differences between the ‘old’ and ‘new’ immigrants.
    • Why do you think they were treated differently?
exit ticket7
Exit Ticket
  • Answer on index card
  • Turn into bin before leaving class
  • How did the culture of places in America changes as a result of new migration patterns in the 19th century? Support your response.
u 2 hw 9
U 2 HW 9
today s agenda4
Today’s Agenda
  • Lesson Overview
  • PPT
  • Activity
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW #8
  • LEQ – Why are some places in America more culturally diverse or similar than others?


  • Ghettos
  • Suburbs
  • Political machines
  • Political boss
think pair share2
  • Answer the EQ in your notebook
  • Pair up with someone in class and share your responses
  • Create a group of four
    • Compare and contrast your two set of answers
    • Compromise and come up with a final response
  • Be prepared to share with the class
checking for understanding2
Checking for Understanding
  • How can migration contribute to culturally diverse areas? Explain your answer.
  • Reading Tables and Analyzing Statistics
paper pass brainstorm
Paper Pass (Brainstorm)
  • Class counts off by 4s
  • Move to groups
  • Everyone must participate in the group
  • Each group will have 5 minutes to answer the question at the top of each sheet of paper
  • Find evidence that supports or disproves what was written above
    • Record where you found the evidence
  • Be prepared to share with class
paper pass
Paper Pass
  • What aspects of culture might immigrants retain in their new setting?
  • What aspects of culture might immigrants adapt to assimilate in their new setting?
  • Why did many Eastern Europeans immigrate in the late 19th century?
  • Why did some cultures settle in homogenous neighborhoods?
checking for understanding3
Checking for Understanding
  • Why was assimilation harder for “new immigrants” than “old immigrants”? Explain your answer.
  • A Land of Promise Reading and Questions
u 2 hw 10
U 2 HW 10
exit ticket8
Exit Ticket
  • Think about the place in which you live.
  • How has immigration (Past or present) affected cultural diversity or similarity in the area? Explain your answer with an example.
  • Turn in before leaving class
today s agenda5
Today’s Agenda
  • Lesson Overview
  • PPT
  • Activity
  • Exit Ticket
  • HW #9
  • LEQ – To what extent does the culture of place change over time?


  • Culture
carousel brainstorming
Carousel Brainstorming
  • Count off by 5s
  • Move to the paper labeled with your number
  • Use the marker and answer the question
  • You will have 2 minutes
  • After time is up, move to the next sheet of paper….1 moves to 2; 2 moves to 3; etc.
  • Take 2 minutes and see if there is anything else missing from your original question
  • Collectively write a brief summary tying everything together that was written
  • Be prepared to share with class
socratic seminar
Socratic Seminar
  • The goal of a Socratic Seminar is to collaboratively build meaning for student understanding, with preparation playing an integral role in this process. Each student will receive a copy on which he or she can highlight, underline, make notes, pose questions. The goal is for the students to “interact” with the text before the Socratic Seminar takes place.
jacob riis
Jacob Riis
  • Journalist and photographer of industrial America
  • Exposed conditions of late 19th century urban life – How the Other Half Lives (1890)
  • Presented slide shows to reform-minded middle class
picture analysis
Picture Analysis
  • • What do you see in the photograph?
  • • Who were these men?
  • • What adjectives would you use to describe this photograph?
  • • What message was Riis trying to send with this photograph?
analyze the document
Analyze the Document

Read and answer the following questions

  • What do you notice about the bold-faced terms?
  • What do you predict this text is about?

• What kind of imagery is Riis trying to create?

Open ended question –

According to Jacob Riis’ interview, how did the culture in the Fourth Ward Alley change?

mapping change over time
Mapping Change Over Time
  • Complete activity – “Mapping South 4th Street to Fabric Row”
activity introduction
Activity Introduction
  • Although you may not realize it, many students are already quite familiar with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). From the use of MapQuest for driving directions to watching a weather map on the evening news, GIS influences many aspects of daily life. It has also become a valuable educational tool in the history classroom. Its ability to integrate data into a visual, geographic format develops interpretative and analytical skills in the young historian.
activity introduction1
Activity Introduction
  • This lesson will utilize GIS maps of the vibrant commercial and residential area of South 4th Street in Philadelphia. To produce these maps, historical data was gathered from several archival sources. Census records provide details about the ages, ethnicities, addresses, and occupations of city residents. Fire Insurance maps provide information about land usage giving valuable insight into the commercial and residential landscape. These maps also present visual representations of what city blocks looked like at different periods of time. This historical information is integrated and displayed visually on the maps allowing students to analyze the ethnic composition as well as the commercial development of blocks or neighborhoods over time. Additionally, students place these changes in the larger social, economic, and political context.
activity introduction2
Activity Introduction
  • This activity is designed to introduce students to GIS mapping through the exploration of static maps from Philadelphia’s South 4th Street, or “Fabric Row.” The maps presented in this exercise are not interactive GIS maps that allow users to zoom in and out of the map and turn layers on and off. These are static maps that can be printed, analyzed, and compared to show change over time. Historical data related to South 4th Street creates the basis for this mapping exercise. South 4th Street was the commercial center of Philadelphia’s early 20th century Jewish community. It was known as Der Ferder(the fourth) in Yiddish, and has been dubbed “Fabric Row” because of the past and present predominance of fabric and garment-related merchandise along the corridor. Many of the original shops on Fabric Row remain, and are entering their third and fourth generation of family ownership. Through this activity, students will see the evolution of South 4th Street into Fabric Row.
activity introduction3
Activity Introduction
  • Part One of this activity introduces students to actual census records and land use data - the building blocks of the GIS maps that they will engage in during Part Two of this activity. This data provides a detailed snapshot of individuals living on South 4th Street in the 1880s.
  • In Part Two, students will see how the raw data was taken and aggregated into GIS maps. Students will compare these maps over time and draw conclusions about the transformations South 4th Street underwent at the turn of the century and make connections to present-day Fabric Row.
part one notes put in notebook
Part One: Notes (Put in notebook)
  • 4th Street, Philadelphia – commercial center with residential dwellings above storefronts
    • Early 20th century – business owners reside above stores and purchase property
    • Post WWII – businesses relocated to Northeast Section or suburbs and commuted to stores
  • You will be working with historical data and maps to investigate the long history of this vibrant commercial and residential area.
part one census data
Part One: Census Data
  • Open the 4th Street 1880 Census file (Excel)
  • Answer the questions on the “Dissecting Historical Data” Worksheet for 1880
  • Open the 4th Street 1888 Land Use Data file
  • Answer the questions on the “Dissecting Historical Data” Worksheet for 1888
part two gis maps
Part Two: GIS Maps
  • The maps organize the raw historical data the students worked with in Part One into a visual representation. Students should be aware that as a result of a fire, there is no U.S. census information for 1890, thus there is no map for that year.
  • Analyze the GIS Maps and answer the questions on the worksheet – Interpreting Static GIS Maps
    • Look for general trends and draw conclusions about changes over time in ethnicity, population, land use and occupations
  • Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper in COMPLETE SENTENCES –
    • What some of the benefits of using the GIS map as a historical tool?
    • How do the GIS Maps compare to the raw census data?
exit ticket9
Exit Ticket
  • Use index card to answer question; Turn in before leaving class
  • How has culture impacted the area in which you have lived?
u2 hw 11
U2 HW 11
urbanization test

Urbanization Test

Put Notebook and Historical Events on my desk

Get out Writing “Cheat Sheet” if completed

Get out separate piece of paper for writing portion of test