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Section 4: A Diverse Society. Chapter 3 Colonial Life in America. Family Life in Colonial America. In 1700’s American colonies were in a period of growth Large families Immigrants=willing and forced Population Growth 1700’s Population Growth= high birthrate

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section 4 a diverse society

Section 4: A Diverse Society

Chapter 3 Colonial Life in America

family life in colonial america
Family Life in Colonial America
  • In 1700’s American colonies were in a period of growth
    • Large families
    • Immigrants=willing and forced
  • Population Growth
    • 1700’s Population Growth= high birthrate
      • On avg. colonial women had 7 children
    • B/W 1640 and 1700, pop. Increased from 25,000 to 250,000
      • Doubled every 25 yrs.=1 million by 1750
      • By the time of American Rev.=2.5 million
family life in colonial america1
Family Life in Colonial America
  • Health and Disease
    • Improvements to housing and sanitation allowed for resistance to some diseases
    • 1721- smallpox swept through Boston
      • Cotton Mather and Dr. Zabdiel Boylston suggested inoculation=inserting the smallpox into your body to build defenses
        • Proved to be a success
family life in colonial america2
Family Life in Colonial America
  • Women in Colonial Society
    • Married women had no legal status=everything belonged to husband
    • Single women had more rights=own property, file lawsuits, and run businesses
    • By 1700, there was an improvement in married women’s rights
      • Signed for sell or mortgage of land
      • Worked in businesses (outside of home)
immigrants in colonial america
Immigrants in Colonial America
  • 100s of 1000’s of white immigrants arrived b/w 1700 and 1775
  • German Immigrants Arrive in Pennsylvania
    • 1st to arrive=Mennonites founded Germantown
    • By 1775, 100,000 Germans had arrived
      • Known as Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsche)
        • Most prosperous farmers; introduced Conestoga wagon
immigrants in colonial america1
Immigrants in Colonial America
  • Scotch-Irish Head West
    • Fled b/c of ↑ taxes, poor harvests, and religious discrimination
      • 150,000 b/w 1717 and 1776 (most went to PA)
    • Unable to purchase land most moved west to frontier=occupy vacant land
  • Colonial America’s Jewish Community
    • 1st group fled Portuguese in Brazil and arrived in New Amsterdam (NYC) in 1654
      • By 1776, 1,500 Jews in the colonies=worshiped as they pleased and worked alongside other colonists (Christians)
africans in colonial america
Africans in Colonial America
  • Africans arrived from many different regions
    • Tried to maintain languages and traditions
      • Planters bought slaves from different regions to make it more difficult to communicate
    • Africans in S.C. created new language called Gullah =combined English and African words
      • Helped create new culture in America
    • Whites used brutal means and persuasion to control slaves
      • Slaves resisted by passive resistance, work slowdown, and escaping
africans in colonial america1
Africans in Colonial America
  • Stono Rebellion
    • In S.C., Africans attacked white slave owners
      • Local militia ended the rebellion
        • 30 – 40 Africans were killed
the enlightenment and great awakening
The Enlightenment and Great Awakening
  • Enlightenment
    • European cultural movement
      • Challenged the authority of the church in science and philosophy
        • Elevated the power of human reason
          • Emphasized rationalism
      • Influential leaders:
        • John Locke- argued all people have rights=life, liberty, and property
        • Jean Jacques Rousseau- argued gov’t and its laws should be created by consent of people
        • Baron Montesquieu- believed gov’t should protect people’s liberties and believed in separation of powers and checks and balances in gov’t
enlightenment thinkers
Enlightenment Thinkers

John Locke

Jean Jacque Rousseau

the enlightenment and great awakening1
The Enlightenment and Great Awakening
  • Great Awakening
    • Resulted as a perceived cooling of religious spirit. (Less people going to church)
      • 1700’s American colonists turned a religious movement called pietism
        • Stress an individual’s devoutness and emotional connection to God, rather than just: paying tithe, going to church, doing “churchy things”
          • Appeals to more common, poorer men.
    • Spread through revivals, or large public meetings of sermon and prayer.
the great awakening
The Great Awakening
  • Split the church into two groups: Old Lights and New Lights.
    • Old Lights: Suspicious of revivals; keep things the same.
    • New Lights: Embraced revivals and piety
      • Leads to new denominations.
the great awakening1
The Great Awakening
  • Two important preachers of the G.A.
    • Jonathan Edwards (New England)
      • “Sinners in the hands of an angry God”
    • George Whitfield (Southern Colonies)
      • Preached 175 times in 75 days across 800 miles.
the great awakening2
The Great Awakening
  • Results of the Great Awakening:
    • 1. Creates many new denominations.
    • 2. Gives common man a sense of significance.
    • 3. Questioning of authority (Old Light ministers)
    • 4. Increase in diversity=> Increase in tolerance.
    • 5. Advances education (Train new ministers)
    • 6. Indirectly sets up the American Revolution