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Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials

Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials

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Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials

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  1. Beyond "listen and repeat" - an overview of English pronunciation teaching materials Magdalena Wrembel Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań magdala@amu.edu.pl

  2. Introduction • Unexplored question - have material designers responded to changing perspectives? • Jones (1997): "In spite of a changed phonological focus [...] teaching techniques and tasks continue to rely on the behaviourist notions of SLA such as habit formation". • My intention: to examine how recent SLA findings and new trends in pronunciation pedagogy are reflected in pronunciation materials • Selected materials: • textbooks • computer software • Internet web sites

  3. Outline of the presentation • Theoretical introduction - changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy • Analysis of materials • Model accents • Goals and priorities • Common core features • Pronunciation teaching techniques • Conclusions

  4. Changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy • Historical outline of pronunciation instruction: • Grammar Translation - irrelevant • Direct Method - intuition & imitation • Audiolingual Method - important, drills • Communicative Approach - initially disregarded, growing awareness

  5. Changing perspectives in pronunciation pedagogy (2) • Shift in priorities (segmentals < suprasegmentals) • Contextualisation and fluency-building • Widened scope of pronunciation instruction • Holistic approach • Autonomy and speech awareness • New technologies

  6. Materials analysis - model accents Textbooks (31) CD-ROMs (13) Internet resources • Phonetics reference sites • Phonetic labs • Professional organisations • Text files • Sound files BE-19 AE-10 ? - 2 BE- 4 AE-10 ? - 2

  7. Target model variety - years of publication

  8. Redirection of priorities suprasegmentals segmentals segmentals+suprasegm.

  9. Focus on segmentals1 • 1960s-70s • Detailed treatment of Vs & Cs • Optional features: • consonantal clusters, • weak forms, • linking, • elements of stress & intonation

  10. Focus on segmentals2 • Textbooks: • Baker,A. 1977. Ship or sheep? An intermediate pronunciation course. • Baker, A. 1982. Tree or Three? An elementary pronunciation course. • Barnard,G.L. & P.S.McKay. 1963. Practice in spoken English. • Hooke,R. & J. Rowell. 1982. A handbook of English pronunciation. • Kenyon,J. S. 1956. American pronunciation. • MacCarthy,P.1965. A practice book of English speech. • Munro Mackenzie,M.D.1973. Modern English pronunciation practice.

  11. Segmentals + suprasegmentals1 • 1980s - 1990s • Vs - quantitative & qualitative, emphasis differs • Cs - focal areas: • aspiration, contrast, fortis / lenis, clusters • Suprasegmentals: • stress & rhythm, connected speech, weak forms, intonation • Additional features: • spelling - sound correspondence, guidance for different L1, voice quality

  12. Segmentals + suprasegmentals2 • Arabski,J. 1987. Wymowa amerykańska. • Cunningham S, & B. Bowler. 1999. New Headway Pronunciation Course • Hewings,M. 1993. Pronunciation tasks. A course for pre-intermediate learners. • O'Connor,J. D. & J. Fletcher.1989. Sounds English. • O'Connor,J. D. 1967 (1989). Better English pronunciation. • Orion,G. 1997. Pronouncing American English: sounds, stress, and intonation. • Ponsby, M. 1982. How Now, Brown Cow? • Reszkiewicz,A. 1981. Correct your English pronunciation. • Sobkowiak,W. 1996. English phonetics for Poles. • CD PRONUNCIATION POWER • CD SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH • CD MOULTON INTERACTIVE INTRO TO PHON & PHON • CD FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE • CD HUMMINGBIRD • SOUND MACHINES

  13. Suprasegmentals 1 • Stress - (word stress, nuclear stress, unaccented syllables, schwa, weak forms) • Rhythm - (thought groups) • Intonation - (communicative function, discourse-based) • Secondary importance • Connected speech • Individual sounds - selected aspects • aspiration, voicing, consonantal contrasts, clusters • vowel duration • practised in the context of connected speech

  14. Suprasegmentals 2 • Bogle,D. 1996. Practical phonology. • Bradford, B. 1988. Intonation in Context. • Brazil,D. 1994. Pronunciation for advanced learners of English. • Gilbert,J. 1993. Clear speech. • Miller,S.F. 2000. Targeting pronunciation: the intonation, sounds, and rhythm of American English. • Morley, J. 1979. Improving Spoken English. • Mortimer,C. 1985. Elements of pronunciation. • Prator,C. 1951 (1985). A manual of American English pronunciation. • Rogerson,P. & J.B.Gilbert. 1990. Speaking clearly. • Vaughan-Rees, M. 1994. Rhymes and Rhythm. • Weinstein, N. 1982. Whaddaya Say? • Zawadzki, H. 1994 In tempo. • CD BETTER ACCENT TUTOR.FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH • CD PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH • CD CONNECTED SPEECH

  15. Pronunciation syllabi - common core features vs. LFC • 85% weak vowel • 77% intonation • 74% word stress • 70% vowel quantity • 67% vowel quality • 67% tonic stress 46% - consonantal clusters • 67% unstressed syllables 44% - linking • 63% rhythm (thought groups)41% - rhotic r • 59% diphthongs 37% - assimilation • 56% dental fricatives 37% - aspiration • 52% weak forms 32% - fortis / lenis • 52% consonants 18% - spelling / sound • 48% elisions 18% - dark l

  16. Pronunciation teaching techniques • "Listen and repeat" • Minimal pair drills • Sample materials: Higgin's Home Page, Baker 1977, Baker 1982, Barnard & McKay 1963, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Orion 1997, Cunningham & Bowler 1999 • Ear training -recognition/discrimination • Baker 1977, Baker 1982, O'Connor 1967, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Clear Speech Works (CD), Ponsby 1982, UCL • Phonetic training • Reszkiewicz 1981, Arabski 1987, Brazil 1994, Orion 1997, The Mouton Interactive Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (CD), Fonetyka angielska w pigułce (CD), PHON2, UCLA's Phonetic Lab, Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day

  17. Pronunciation teaching techniques (2) • Reading aloud / recitation • Mortimer 1985, Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Ponsby 1982 • Tongue twisters and poems • Vaughan-Rees 1994, Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters • Pronunciation games • Maidments' Sound Machines, Windmayer's Sounds of English Pronunciation Power (CD), Bogle 1996, Hancock 2003 • Communicative / contextualised activities • Morley 1979, Bradford 1988, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Gilbert 1993, Hewings & Goldstein 1993, Brazil 1994, Miller 2000

  18. Pronunciation teaching techniques (3) • Pair work • O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Miller 2000, Hewings & Goldstein 1993 • Multisensory modes of presentation • Kinaesthetic reinforcement • Bogle 1996, Miller 2000 • Visual support • Sobkowiak 1996, Orion 1997, Pronunciation Power (CD), Clear Speech Works (CD), CSLU Toolkit Baldi • Guidance for users of different languages: Cunningham & Bowler 1999, O'Connor & Fletcher 1989, Hancock 2003

  19. Pronunciation teaching techniques (4) • Transcription exercises • Bogle 1996, Orion 1997, Lecumberri & Maidment 2000 • Integrated skills • Speak Fluent American English (CD), Gilbert 1993 • Voice quality • Speak Fluent American English (CD) • Sensitisation • Bradford 1988, Brazil 1994, Hancock 2003 • Self-monitoring and learners' autonomy: • Brazil 1994, Miller 2000, CD-ROMs

  20. Conclusions • Greater variety in NS-model accents • Redefined goals and priorities • intelligibility & communication • Pronunciation syllabi - little compatibility with LFC • Wider inventory of teaching techniques • beyond "listen & repeat" • consciousness-raising and self-monitoring

  21. Internet resources - Phonetics Reference Sites • CyberPhon (acoustic phonetics) http://www.cyberphon.univ-lyon2.fr • PHON2: Phonetics beyond the basics http://www.linguistics.reading.ac.uk/phon2 • Pronunciation Web Resources - links http://www.sunburstmedia.com/PronWeb.html • An overview of pronunciation software, D. Healey http://oregonstate.edu/~healeyd/tesol2002/pron.html

  22. Internet resources (2) - text files • John Higgin's Home Page - minimal pairs http://www.marlodge.supanet.com/ • Michael Reck's Collection of Tongue Twisters http://www.uebersetzung.at/twister/en.html • Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English http://www.soundsofenglish.org • Maidment's Pronunciation Tip of the Day http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/eptotd/tiphome.html • SIL's IPA Fonts http://www.itl.atr.co.jp/comp.speech/Section1/Fonts/sil.ipa.html

  23. Internet resources (3) - practical activities on the Web • John Maidments' Sound Machines http://www.eptotd.btinternet.co.uk/vm/soundmachines.htm • Vowel Machine • Transcriber • TONI • PLATO • Web-based transcription tool http://www.wtt.org.uk • Sharon Windmayer's Sounds of English http://www.soundsofenglish.org

  24. Internet resources (4) - phonetic labs and organisations • UCLA's Phonetics Lab http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/linguistics/faciliti/uclaplab.html • Phonetics Dep. at the University College London http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells • The International Phonetic Association http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA/ipa.html • IATEFL's Pronun. Special Interest Group http://members.aol.com/PronunciationSig/index.html • TESOL's Speech/Pronunc. Special Interest Section http://www.public.iastate.edu/~jlevis/SPRIS/

  25. Pronunciation CD-ROMs • THE MOUTON INTERACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY • FONETYKA ANGIELSKA W PIGUŁCE, Sobkowiak,W. 2000. (BE) • PRONUNCIATION POWER (AE) http://www.englishlearning.com/pronpowr.html • PRONUNCIATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH 1999 (AE) • BETTER ACCENT TUTOR FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE) • SPEAK FLUENT AMERICAN ENGLISH (AE) • HUMMINGBIRD (AE) http://www.humbird.com • SOUND MACHINES (BE) • CONNECTED SPEECH (AE, BE, Australian) • CLEAR SPEECH WORKS (AE) • AMERICAN SPEECH SOUNDS (AE) • ENGLISH EASY: VOWELS AND CONSONANTS (Canadian English) • PPO-NUNCIATION SOUND LAB & MOUTH EXERCISES (BE, AE) • AMERICAN ACCENT PROGRAMME (AE)