Vitamin D - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

vitamin d n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vitamin D PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 15
Vitamin D
871 Views
Download Presentation
kaloni
Download Presentation

Vitamin D

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Vitamin D The Sunshine “Vitamin”

  2. History • Vitamin D was discovered as a cure for Rickets in the early 20th century. • It was first understood to only come from the skin of animals and was necessary for the body, and therefore it was named a vitamin. • However, further research showed that humans are able to manufacture significant quantities of it in their skin, this technically means that it is not a vitamin.

  3. Rickets • A bone disease brought on by a Vitamin D deficiency. • Rickets causes weakening and softening of the bones in children. • It afflicted many children in the 18th and 19th century, killing many due to a lack of understanding of the disease. • The first cure for rickets came in the early 19th century in the form of cod liver oil; however, the reason why this worked was not know till the early 20th century.

  4. Vitamin D • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble steroid molecules that are derived from the parent structure cholesterol. • Vitamin D is based on the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring structure. • It is unique in that it is the only vitamin that is produced inside the body. • It is technically classified as a seco steroid hormone due to the fact that it is manufactured by the body and plays regulatory roles.

  5. Vitamin D • There are two dominant forms of vitamin D, D2and D3. • Vitamin D, when either ingested or created in the skin, is inactive and must be hydroxylated two times in order to become hormonally active and useful to the body. • The first hydroxylation takes place in the liver where the number 25 carbon is hydroxylated. • The second hydroxylation takes place in the kidney where the number 1 carbon is hydroxylated.

  6. Vitamin D3 • Also known as cholecalciferol. • Produced photochemically in the skin of animals and humans from the ultraviolet radiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol. • Regulation of production is controlled by an equilibrium; meaning that when the concentration of D3is high enough the ultraviolet radiation begins to break down the D3. 1,25- Dihydroxycholecalciferol 7-Dehydrocholesterol

  7. Vitamin D3 • Vitamin D3 is produced in the epidermis of the skin. • The epidermis contains five strata. • From outer to inner: • Stratum Corneum • Stratum Lucidum • Stratum Granulosum • Stratum Spinosum • Stratum Basale • The stratum spinosum and basale is where the highest concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol is found. • The melanin concentration in the epidermis is a factor that must be considered. UVB Melanin UVB 7-dehydrocholesterol

  8. Vitamin D2 • Also known as ergocalciferol • Produced photochemically by the ultraviolet radiation of ergosterol in plants. • Functionally serves the same purpose as D3, however it is markedly less effective. 1,25- Dihydroxyergocalciferol Ergosterol

  9. Comparison 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol 1,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol

  10. Major Biological Role • Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the serum. • Vitamin D can increase or decrease the small intestine effectiveness of absorbing calcium and phosphorus. • This is made possible by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) which conformationally changes when bound to 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, which allows absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine so that bone mineralization can occur.

  11. Minor/Recently Discovered biological roles • Recent studies have shown that vitamin D may be able to suppress some autoimmune diseases. • Also a recent study showed that vitamin D plays some role in neurotransmitter synthesis, however the exact role is not known yet.

  12. Daily intake Still being debated…

  13. Sources of vitamin D

  14. Conclusion • Vitamin D is absolutely essential for natural function of the body. • We still do not understand all of the uses of vitamin D in the body and therefore further research must be conducted.

  15. References • Wolf, G. (2004). The Discovery of Vitamin D: The Contribution of Adolf Windaus. The Journal of Nutrition, 134, 1299-1302. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/134/6/1299. • University of California, Riverside. (1999). History of Vitamin D. About Vitamin D. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://vitamind.ucr.edu/history.html. • National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Unraveling the Enigma of Vitamin D. Beyond Discovery: The path from research to human benefit. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.beyonddiscover.org/content/view.txt.asp?a=414. • Vitamin D – Vitamin D2, Vitamin D3, Vitamin D4, formerly, Vitamin D5, Vitamin D6. http://science.jrank.org/pages/44204/vitamin-D.html. • Vitamin D (calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/vitamin-D.php. • What is Vitamin D? What are the Benefits of Vitamin D? (2009). Medical News Today. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161618.php. • University of California, Riverside. (1999). Chemistry of Vitamin D. About Vitamin D. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://vitamind.ucr.edu/chem.html. • Ergocalciferol(vitamin D2, vitamin D, calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/ergocalciferol.php. • Houghton, L. A., & Vieth, R. (2006). The Case Against Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a Vitamin Supplement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(4), 694-697. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/84/4/694.full. • Cholecalciferol(vitamin D3, vitamin D, calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/cholecalciferol.php. • New Ideas on Vitamin D. (1973). The British Medical Journal, 1(5854), 629-630. JSTOR. Web 17 Nov. 2010. • Cooke, N.E., Murgia, A., & McLeod, J.F. (2006). Vitamin D-Binding Protein: Structure and Pattern of Expression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 538, 49-59. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb48849.x/abstract. • Sigma-Aldrich. (2010). Vitamin D. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?D7=0&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO|BRAND_KEY&N4=17936|SIGMA&N25=0&QS=ON&F=SPEC. • Armas, L.A.G., Hollis, B.W., & Heaney, R.P. (2004). Vitamin D2 is Much Less Effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(11), 5387-5391. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/89/11/5387. • National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, & Food and Nutrition Board. (1997). Chapter 7: Vitamin D. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, fromhttp://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Calcium/250-287.pdf. • Cromphaut, S.J.V., Dewerchin, M., Hoenderop, J.G.J., Stockmans, I., Herck, E.V., Kato, S., Bindels, R.J.M., Collen, D., Carmeliet, P., Bouillon, R., & Carmeliet, G. (2001). Duodenal Calcium Absorption in Vitamin D Receptor – Knockout Mice: Functional and Molecular Aspects. The National Academy of Sciences, 98(23), 13324-13329. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC60869/. • Haussler, M.R., Whitfield, G.K., Haussler, C.A., Hsieh, J., Thompson, P.D., Selznick, S.H., Dominguez, C.E., & Jurutka, P.W. (1998). The Nuclear Vitamin D Receptor: Biological and Molecular Regulatory Properties Revealed. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 13(3), 325-349. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.3.325/full. • Deluca, H.F., & Cantorna, M.T. (2001). Vitamin D: Its Role and Uses in Immunology. The FASEB Journal: The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15(14), 2579-2585. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579.full. • Deluca, H.F., & Cantorna, M.T. (2001). Table 1 of Vitamin D: Its Role and Uses in Immunology. The FASEB Journal: The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15(14), 2579-2585. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579/T1.expansion.html. • Garcion, E., Wion-Barbot, N., Montero-Menei, C.N., Berger, F., & Wion, D. (2002). New Clues About Vitamin D Functions in the Nervous System. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(3), 100-105. doi: 10.1016/S1043-2760(01)00547-1. • DeLuca, H.F. (2004). Overview of General Physiologic Features and Functions of Vitamin D1,2,3,4. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(6), 1689S-1696S. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/80/6/1689S.full?ijkey=cab84af539aeab74808371b4ac46df6ba3304ec7. • Holick, M. F. (2002). Sunlight and Vitamin D: Both Good for Cardiovascular Health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(9), 733-735. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.20731.x. • List of Vitamin D Rich Foods: Combat Osteoporosis by Eating Foods High in Vitamin D. (2010). Osteoporosis Advice. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.osteoporosisadvice.com/vitaminD-Rich-Foods.php. • Norman, A.W. (1998). Sunlight, Season, Skin Pigmentation, Vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Integral Components of the Vitamin D Endocrine System. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(6), 1108-1110. Retrieved 30 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/67/6/1108.full.pdf.