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Vitamin D. The Sunshine “Vitamin”. History . Vitamin D was discovered as a cure for Rickets in the early 20 th century. It was first understood to only come from the skin of animals and was necessary for the body, and therefore it was named a vitamin.

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vitamin d

Vitamin D

The Sunshine “Vitamin”

history
History
  • Vitamin D was discovered as a cure for Rickets in the early 20th century.
  • It was first understood to only come from the skin of animals and was necessary for the body, and therefore it was named a vitamin.
  • However, further research showed that humans are able to manufacture significant quantities of it in their skin, this technically means that it is not a vitamin.
rickets
Rickets
  • A bone disease brought on by a Vitamin D deficiency.
  • Rickets causes weakening and softening of the bones in children.
  • It afflicted many children in the 18th and 19th century, killing many due to a lack of understanding of the disease.
  • The first cure for rickets came in the early 19th century in the form of cod liver oil; however, the reason why this worked was not know till the early 20th century.
vitamin d1
Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble steroid molecules that are derived from the parent structure cholesterol.
  • Vitamin D is based on the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring structure.
  • It is unique in that it is the only vitamin that is produced inside the body.
  • It is technically classified as a seco steroid hormone due to the fact that it is manufactured by the body and plays regulatory roles.
vitamin d2
Vitamin D
  • There are two dominant forms of vitamin D, D2and D3.
  • Vitamin D, when either ingested or created in the skin, is inactive and must be hydroxylated two times in order to become hormonally active and useful to the body.
  • The first hydroxylation takes place in the liver where the number 25 carbon is hydroxylated.
  • The second hydroxylation takes place in the kidney where the number 1 carbon is hydroxylated.
vitamin d 3
Vitamin D3
  • Also known as cholecalciferol.
  • Produced photochemically in the skin of animals and humans from the ultraviolet radiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol.
  • Regulation of production is controlled by an equilibrium; meaning that when the concentration of D3is high enough the ultraviolet radiation begins to break down the D3.

1,25- Dihydroxycholecalciferol

7-Dehydrocholesterol

vitamin d 31
Vitamin D3
  • Vitamin D3 is produced in the epidermis of the skin.
  • The epidermis contains five strata.
    • From outer to inner:
      • Stratum Corneum
      • Stratum Lucidum
      • Stratum Granulosum
      • Stratum Spinosum
      • Stratum Basale
  • The stratum spinosum and basale is where the highest concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol is found.
  • The melanin concentration in the epidermis is a factor that must be considered.

UVB

Melanin

UVB

7-dehydrocholesterol

vitamin d 2
Vitamin D2
  • Also known as ergocalciferol
  • Produced photochemically by the ultraviolet radiation of ergosterol in plants.
  • Functionally serves the same purpose as D3, however it is markedly less effective.

1,25- Dihydroxyergocalciferol

Ergosterol

comparison
Comparison

1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol

1,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol

major biological role
Major Biological Role
  • Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the serum.
  • Vitamin D can increase or decrease the small intestine effectiveness of absorbing calcium and phosphorus.
  • This is made possible by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) which conformationally changes when bound to 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, which allows absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine so that bone mineralization can occur.
minor recently discovered biological roles
Minor/Recently Discovered biological roles
  • Recent studies have shown that vitamin D may be able to suppress some autoimmune diseases.
  • Also a recent study showed that vitamin D plays some role in neurotransmitter synthesis, however the exact role is not known yet.
daily intake
Daily intake

Still being debated…

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Vitamin D is absolutely essential for natural function of the body.
  • We still do not understand all of the uses of vitamin D in the body and therefore further research must be conducted.
references
References
  • Wolf, G. (2004). The Discovery of Vitamin D: The Contribution of Adolf Windaus. The Journal of Nutrition, 134, 1299-1302. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/134/6/1299.
  • University of California, Riverside. (1999). History of Vitamin D. About Vitamin D. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://vitamind.ucr.edu/history.html.
  • National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Unraveling the Enigma of Vitamin D. Beyond Discovery: The path from research to human benefit. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.beyonddiscover.org/content/view.txt.asp?a=414.
  • Vitamin D – Vitamin D2, Vitamin D3, Vitamin D4, formerly, Vitamin D5, Vitamin D6. http://science.jrank.org/pages/44204/vitamin-D.html.
  • Vitamin D (calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/vitamin-D.php.
  • What is Vitamin D? What are the Benefits of Vitamin D? (2009). Medical News Today. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/161618.php.
  • University of California, Riverside. (1999). Chemistry of Vitamin D. About Vitamin D. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://vitamind.ucr.edu/chem.html.
  • Ergocalciferol(vitamin D2, vitamin D, calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/ergocalciferol.php.
  • Houghton, L. A., & Vieth, R. (2006). The Case Against Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a Vitamin Supplement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(4), 694-697. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/84/4/694.full.
  • Cholecalciferol(vitamin D3, vitamin D, calciferol). (2006). Vitamins & Health Supplements. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.vitamins-supplements.org/cholecalciferol.php.
  • New Ideas on Vitamin D. (1973). The British Medical Journal, 1(5854), 629-630. JSTOR. Web 17 Nov. 2010.
  • Cooke, N.E., Murgia, A., & McLeod, J.F. (2006). Vitamin D-Binding Protein: Structure and Pattern of Expression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 538, 49-59. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb48849.x/abstract.
  • Sigma-Aldrich. (2010). Vitamin D. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?D7=0&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO|BRAND_KEY&N4=17936|SIGMA&N25=0&QS=ON&F=SPEC.
  • Armas, L.A.G., Hollis, B.W., & Heaney, R.P. (2004). Vitamin D2 is Much Less Effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(11), 5387-5391. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/89/11/5387.
  • National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, & Food and Nutrition Board. (1997). Chapter 7: Vitamin D. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, fromhttp://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Calcium/250-287.pdf.
  • Cromphaut, S.J.V., Dewerchin, M., Hoenderop, J.G.J., Stockmans, I., Herck, E.V., Kato, S., Bindels, R.J.M., Collen, D., Carmeliet, P., Bouillon, R., & Carmeliet, G. (2001). Duodenal Calcium Absorption in Vitamin D Receptor – Knockout Mice: Functional and Molecular Aspects. The National Academy of Sciences, 98(23), 13324-13329. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC60869/.
  • Haussler, M.R., Whitfield, G.K., Haussler, C.A., Hsieh, J., Thompson, P.D., Selznick, S.H., Dominguez, C.E., & Jurutka, P.W. (1998). The Nuclear Vitamin D Receptor: Biological and Molecular Regulatory Properties Revealed. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 13(3), 325-349. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.3.325/full.
  • Deluca, H.F., & Cantorna, M.T. (2001). Vitamin D: Its Role and Uses in Immunology. The FASEB Journal: The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15(14), 2579-2585. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579.full.
  • Deluca, H.F., & Cantorna, M.T. (2001). Table 1 of Vitamin D: Its Role and Uses in Immunology. The FASEB Journal: The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15(14), 2579-2585. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579/T1.expansion.html.
  • Garcion, E., Wion-Barbot, N., Montero-Menei, C.N., Berger, F., & Wion, D. (2002). New Clues About Vitamin D Functions in the Nervous System. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13(3), 100-105. doi: 10.1016/S1043-2760(01)00547-1.
  • DeLuca, H.F. (2004). Overview of General Physiologic Features and Functions of Vitamin D1,2,3,4. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(6), 1689S-1696S. Retrieved 17 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/80/6/1689S.full?ijkey=cab84af539aeab74808371b4ac46df6ba3304ec7.
  • Holick, M. F. (2002). Sunlight and Vitamin D: Both Good for Cardiovascular Health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(9), 733-735. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.20731.x.
  • List of Vitamin D Rich Foods: Combat Osteoporosis by Eating Foods High in Vitamin D. (2010). Osteoporosis Advice. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2010, from http://www.osteoporosisadvice.com/vitaminD-Rich-Foods.php.
  • Norman, A.W. (1998). Sunlight, Season, Skin Pigmentation, Vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Integral Components of the Vitamin D Endocrine System. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(6), 1108-1110. Retrieved 30 Nov. 2010, from http://www.ajcn.org/content/67/6/1108.full.pdf.