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Functional Language Intervention: More Than Just Talking. Part IV: Intervention Texas Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s Annual Convention, March 7-9, 2013. Robert E. Owens, Ph.D. “Dr. Bob” Associate Professor College of St. Rose, Albany, NY NYS Distinguished Teaching Professor.

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Functional Language

Intervention:

More Than Just Talking

Part IV: Intervention

Texas Speech-Language-Hearing

Association’s Annual Convention,

March 7-9, 2013

Robert E. Owens, Ph.D.

“Dr. Bob”

Associate Professor

College of St. Rose, Albany, NY

NYS Distinguished Teaching Professor


Speaker: Dr. Robert E. Owens, Jr., Ph.D., CCC-SLP

Topic: Functional Language Intervention: More Than

Just Talking

Employed by College of St. Rose, Albany, NY

Disclosure: I am an author for Pearson Education

and receive royalty payments. Although

many of the concepts mentioned today are

also found in my books, I will neither

promote nor encourage participants to buy

my books or any other Pearson products.


A functional intervention model
A Functional Intervention Model

Traditional language intervention does not

consider either the integrated nature of

language or the context of language use. Clinical

intervention should be a well-integrated whole.

  • Traditional language intervention does not consider either the integrated nature of language or the context of language use. Clinical intervention should be a well-integrated whole.

  • New role for SLP: Consultant for the other language facilitators

  • Concern for generalization is foremost and governs overall intervention


Our goal is

…To create and sustain an

atmosphere of fun, surprise,

interest, ease, laughter,

and spontaneity

Does this sound like your intervention

sessions? If the answer is “NO,” then it’s

time for a…

CHANGE


Intervention Principles

Be a REINFORCER

Closely Approximate Natural Learning

Follow Developmental Guidelines

Follow the Child's Lead

Actively Involve the Child -- Language

learning is not a passive process

Language is Heavily Influenced by

Context so Teach where language

is used

Familiar Events Provide Scripts

Design a Generalization Plan First


Consider

Information Processing

Near transfer

New problem

B=C=2

Needs immediate

response

New problem

A B C D E F

Memory

STIMULI

Organization

Attention

Discrimination

R e t r i e v a l

1 2 3 4 5 6

Far transfer


ID and Information Processing

Near transfer

New problem

B=C=2

Needs immediate

response

New problem

A B C D E F

Memory

STIMULI

Organization

Attention

Discrimination

R e t r i e v a l

1 2 3 4 5 6

Far transfer


LD and Information Processing

Near transfer

New problem

B=C=2

Needs immediate

response

New problem

A B C D E F

Memory

STIMULI

Organization

Attention

Discrimination

R e t r i e v a l

1 2 3 4 5 6

Far transfer


Manipulating context
Manipulating Context

  • Manipulate contexts to provide the child the maximum learning possible

  • When language can be used to achieve goals within everyday communication contexts, the chances of generalization to these contexts increases

  • Manipulate both non-linguistic and linguistic contexts


Non linguistic context manipulation
Non-Linguistic Context Manipulation

  • Easy to overlook.

  • Certain contexts naturally elicit more and different language than do others.

  • Nonlinguistic context elicits target language feature

    • SLP can help child modify target feature into a correct form for that situation.

    • Examples: Delay, Introduction of Novel Elements, Oversight, and Sabotage.


Linguistic context manipulation

Type

Modeling

Indirect Input

Direct Input

Function

Model

Elicit

Model

Elicit

Provide Feedback

No child response

Require response

Linguistic Context Manipulation


Linguistic context manipulation modeling
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Modeling

  • What: Facilitator produces rule-governed utterances at appropriate junctures

  • Rationale: Child is active learner who abstracts rules and associates them with events and stimuli in the environment

  • When: Prior to attempting to elicit the target

  • Types

    • Focused stimulation

    • Self-talk

    • Parallel talk

  • Efficacy: Compares well with more active techniques

Linguistic strategies.DOC


Linguistic context manipulation indirect input
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Indirect Input

  • Elicit language features

  • Conversational and situational in nature

  • If child gives a response somewhat less than desired, SLP can shape the utterance into an acceptable form


Linguistic context manipulation indirect input1

Indirect Technique

Emperor’s new clothes       

Pass it on                  

Silly rabbit! 

Non-blabbermouth 

What I have 

Guess what I did

Indirect Techniques.DOC

Target 

Negative statements

Request information 

Protests, directives, imperatives

Request information  

Request action

Request information, Past tense

Linguistic Context Manipulation: Indirect Input


Linguistic context manipulation direct input
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Direct Input

To elicit…Use. . .

Verbs "What is he doing (are you doing)?" Use any tense.

Subjects "Who/what is verbing?" Tense can be altered for the

situation.

Objects "What is he/she verbing?" Tense can be altered for the situation.

Adverbs/ "When/where/how is he/she verbing?" How

adverbial questions can also be used to elicit process

phrases answers

Adjectives/ "Which one . . .?" Responses can be modeled

adjectival

phrases

Specific Completion sentences & Substitution requests

words

Linguistic strategies.DOC

One variation is a mand-model


Linguistic context manipulation mand model
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Mand-model

  • Routine established prior to beginning

  • Four-step training sequence

    • Teacher attracts child's attention by providing variety of attractive materials

    • After child has expressed interest, teacher (de)mands, "Tell me about this" or"Tell me what you want," requesting a behavior trained previously

    • If no response, teacher prompts response or provides model to be imitated

    • Teacher praises child's appropriate response and gives child desired item


Linguistic context manipulation direct input1
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Direct Input

Contingencies Requiring No Response

  • What: Nonevaluative or accepting in nature and used to increase correct production or highlight incorrect production for self-correction.

  • Steps:

    • Child initiates or responds to some cue

    • Facilitator focuses full attention on the child which acts as a reinforcer for the child and can be used to modify the child's language.

Linguistic strategies.DOC


Linguistic context manipulation direct input2
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Direct Input

Contingencies Requiring No Response

  • Fulfilling the intention of the child's utterance

  • Continuant is a signal that a message has been received and acknowledged

  • Imitation is especially helpful when correctly produced features of interest emphasized.

  • Expansion or recast/expansion

  • Extension

  • Breakdowns and build-ups

  • Recast sentences

Linguistic strategies.DOC


Linguistic context manipulation direct input3
Linguistic Context Manipulation: Direct Input

Contingencies Requiring a Response

  • Correction model/request

  • Incomplete correction model/request

  • Choice-making

  • Reduced error repetition/request.

  • Error repetition/request.

  • Self-correction request.

  • Contingent queries

  • Repetition request

  • Expansion request

  • Turnabouts

Linguistic strategies 2.DOC


Example of

hierarchy in use

Child: I sawed two puppies

Partner: Was that right? (Self-correcting request)

Child: Uh-huh.

Partner: I sawed two puppies? (Error repetition/request)

Child: Yeah.

Partner: Sawed? (Reduced error repetion/request)

Child: Saw. I saw two puppies.

Partner: What? (Contingent query)

Child: I saw two puppies.

Partner: I think I love puppies more than kittens. Where did you see them? (Turnabout)


Evidence based practice
Evidence-Based Practice

  • Research combined with reason

  • Relatively new to SLP and ASHA

  • Clinical decision-making informed by

    • Scientific evidence

    • Clinical experience

    • Client needs


Evidence-based practice

(EBP) entails a critical

mindset andrigorous

methods that foster

the judicious integration

of scientificevidence into

clinical decision making


What do we know from meta analyses
What do we know from meta-analyses?

  • Significant positiveeffect with children having phonological or expressive vocabulary difficulties

  • Mixed evidencefor children with expressivesyntax difficulties

  • Inconclusive results for children with receptivelanguage problems due to limited numberof studies


Meta analysis of specific intervention techniques
Meta-analysis of specific intervention techniques

  • Expressive syntax & morphology

    • Moderatelylarge to large effects from

      • Imitation

      • Modeling

      • Modeling plus evoked production

    • Computerized input strategies have yet to demonstrate extensive benefit, especially used alone


Meta analysis of specific intervention techniques1
Meta-analysis of specific intervention techniques

  • Semantics & Vocabulary

    • Collaborating with classroom teachers

    • Slow introduction of new words & concepts vs. mass learning

    • Interactive reading

    • Instruction in analogical thinking

    • For word-finding, no clear differences between semanticelaboration, semantic retrieval, or phonologically based treatments


Meta analysis of specific intervention techniques2
Meta-analysis of specific intervention techniques

  • Phonological awareness & metalinguistics

    • Tasks designed to improve rhyming,sound identification, phoneme segmentation, phoneme manipulation,and grapheme-phoneme effective

    • Classroom collaboration


Meta analysis of specific intervention techniques3
Meta-analysis of specific intervention techniques

  • Language Processing

    • Language-based computer games alone even when using modified speech, have little effect

  • Pragmatics

    • Direct instruction works for conversational entry and topic initiation


Functional language intervention
Functional Language Intervention

  • Potentially, well-trained parents can be as effective as SLPs in administering intervention

  • Classroom collaboration works well in some cases

    • Teachers adapt more readily to activity contexts than to instructional processes

  • Productive syntax seems most difficult to teach

    • Modeling plus evoked production


Best practices in language intervention
Best Practices in Language Intervention

  • A system of least promptsfrom least to most intrusive and supportive

    • Gradually minimize prompting and allow context to prompt targeted language features

  • Imitation enables child to become accustomed to language feature being taught


Best practices in language intervention1
Best Practices in Language Intervention

  • Changing one aspect of language to emphasize a target may change another

    • Example: I’ll go. I WILL go.

    • Place emphasized words where they are salient and won’t change meaning, such as end of sentence:

      • She is running to school. She really IS.

      • Don’t put the block ON the box. Put itIN.


Best practices in language intervention2
Best Practices in Language Intervention

  • Other input modes may help

    • Use other sensory input

    • Children learn in different ways

    • Teach using child’s strengths

  • Repeated input & practice retrieval work for vocabulary teaching

    • Mnemonic devices & pictures

    • Book sharing


Best practices in language intervention3
Best Practices in Language Intervention

  • Use syntactic structure to teach grammatical forms. Example: Infinitives

    • Noun-verb-to-verb (Oscar wants to eat)

      • Easiest

      • Initially used with want, like, and try

    • Noun-verb-noun-to-verb (Oscar wants Ernie to eat)


Best practices in language intervention4
Best Practices in Language Intervention

  • Key words can serve as signals & reminders

    • Yesterday & tomorrow for verb tense

    • Want, like, and try for infinitive

    • Wh- question types

    • Parallel sentence format

  • Train syntax & morphology in service of communication uses


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