X RAY SPECTROSCOPY. Introduction. X-rays are a part of electromagnetic spectrum. X-rays have a wavelength in ranges of 0.01nm to 10nm.70-200pm for (AP). Produced by the deceleration of high-energy electrons. Electronic transition of electrons in the inner orbitals of atoms.
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X rays give information about the absorbing material just. Like other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum X rays are absorbed by matter and degree of absorbtion is determined by the nature and amount of absorbing material.
Fluorescence emission of X-rays enables to identify and measure heavy elements. It is used for quantitative and qualitative determination of heavy elements
Diffraction of x rays is used in analysis of crystalline materials with high degree of accuracy and specificity.
Components for X-ray spectroscopy are :
Determining the energy of the X-Ray
Controlling the intensity of X-Ray
A collimator is a device that narrows a beam of particles or waves.
Narrow mean to cause the directions of motion to become more aligned in a specific direction (i.e., collimated or parallel).
Collimation is achieved by using a series of closely spaced ,parallel metal plates or by a bundle of tubes ,0.5 or less in diameter.
where d= distance between similar atomic planes in mineral (inter-atomic
= angle of diffraction
n= an integer – 1,2,3.. etc (order of diffraction)