Introduction: What is Media Literacy?
Media Literacy • The average person sees and hears hundreds of advertisements a day from media sources all around them. • This media directly affects our perception of life. • Forms of Media: • Radio • Websites • Movies • Television • Newspapers • Mail • Billboards • Books • Magazines • Print ads • Photographs • Speeches • Videogames • E-mail
How Much Media? • For the next 7-10 minutes please think about they types of media you see each day and for how many hours each day you are exposed to them. • Books • Magazines • Print ads • Photographs • Speeches • Videogames • E-mail • Radio • Websites • Movies • Television • Newspapers • Mail • Billboards • In your opinion which type of media do you believe has the largest impact on you and your life? • Please give me one example of how a type of media has effect you personally.
Deconstructing Media • The creators of media know how to shape your interests and desires through the use of images and sound, • To truly be media literate, you must be aware of these persuasive advertising techniques. • You need to break them down! • Some questions to ask yourself when looking at different forms of media: • Who paid for this media? • To what age group, economic group, and gender does this media appeal? • What text or images bring you to this conclusion? • What kind of lifestyle is presented? How is it glamorized? • What is the obvious message in this media? • What are the hidden messages in this media? • In what ways is this a healthy or unhealthy example of media?
Deconstructing Media • Who paid for this media? • To what age group, economic group, and gender does this media appeal? • What text or images bring you to this conclusion? • What kind of lifestyle is presented? How is it glamorized? • What is the obvious message in this media? • What are the hidden messages in this media? • In what ways is this a healthy or unhealthy example of media?
Powering on & Logging in • To power on your Mac, press the button on the bottom left of the machine located in the back. • To log in use the username and login given to you by your teacher.
Explore • Please take the next 10 minutes to explore the iMac. • Click on any applications you would like to explore!
Media Scavenger Hunt • In pairs, please explore the Internet for different types of media and look for the persuasive advertising techniques that they use. • They can be video ads, print ads, or audio ads. • Use the chart given to help guide you! • The team with the most examples will be give 5 extra points on our next test.
Analyzing Persuasive Techniques in Advertising • Today we will be reviewing two commercials for competing products. • As a class we will view the commercials, and then use the chart to analyze the persuasive techniques the ads use. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoVW62mwSQQ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLd9hjl3Kds
Homework • Please use the sheet given to you that we have used in class. • Choose two commercials of competing products to view. • YouTube is a perfect place to find them. • Complete this chart like we have done in class, and be prepared to share it with your classmates.
Do Now • Please list some of your favorite TV shows and/or movies. • Why do you consider them your favorites? • In your opinion what do you think goes into producing a TV show, from an original idea to the shows we see on the screen?
Three Production Phases • Preproduction: The preparation of all production details. • Stage 1: all activities necessary to transform the basic idea into a workable concept or script. • Stage 2: production details such as location, crews, and the necessary equipment. • Production: The actual activities in which an event id recorded and /or televised. • It includes all activities in which an event is video-recorded or televised. • Postproduction: Any production activity that occurs after the production. Usually refers to either video editing or audio sweetening (a variety of quality adjustments of recorded sound). • Video & audio editing. • Color correction. • Background music selection • Special effects
Effect-to-Cause Production Model • The production model is meant to help you move from the original idea to a finished production as efficiently as possible (think of it as an outline before you write). • Effect to cause model – jumps from the initial idea and story angle directly to the desired effect – the effect you want it to have on the target audience also known as the process message.
Medium Requirements • Rather than being driven by the initial idea, the production process is now driven by the defined process message. • At this point you could proceed to medium requirements. • The people • Facilities • Equipment for Preproduction, production, & postproduction. • At this point you should also find a useful “angle”.
Story Angle • An angle is a specific story focus, a point of view from which to look at and describe events. • Example: • If a dog bites a mailman – the dogs owners story angle may be the rising crime in the neighborhood, and a dogs attempt to protect its master. • The mailman’s story angle may focus on the viciousness of neighborhood dogs and the need for stricter leash laws. • Choosing you angle also comes directly out of considering your desired effect on the audience.
Production People • Nontechnical Production Personnel (above-the-line-personnel) • Generally involved in translating a script or an event into effective television image. • Executive producer - In charge of one or several large productions or program series. Manages budget and coordinates with client, station management, advertising agencies, financial supporters, and talent and writers’ agents. • Producer - In charge of an individual production. Responsible for all personnel working on the production and for coordinating technical and nontechnical production elements. Often serves as writer and occasion ally as director. • Director - In charge of directing talent and technical operations. Is ultimately responsible for transforming a script into effective video and audio messages. At small stations may often be the producer as well. • A full list of all nontechnical personnel is on pages 7-8.
Production People • Technical Production Personnel (below-the-line-personnel) • Consists of people who are primarily concerned with operating equipment: camera operators, audio and lighting people, video recording operators, video editors, and people who set up communication and signal transmission. • You should realize, however, that in smaller television and film operations, one person might carry out several different functions. • For example the producer may also write and direct the film/show. • A full list of technical personnel is located on page 9.
Production People • News production personnel – dedicated exclusively to the production of news, documentaries, and special events and perform highly specific functions. • News director- In charge of all news operations. Bears ultimate responsibility for all newscasts. • Producer - Directly responsible for the selection and the placement of the stories in a newscast so that they form a unified, balanced whole. • Assignment editor - Assigns reporters and videographers to specific events to be covered. • Reporter - Gathers the stories. Often reports on-camera from the field. • Video journalist - Reporter who shoots and edits his or her own footage. • Videographer - Camcorder operator. In the absence of a reporter, decides on what part of the event to cover. Also called news photographer and shooter. • Writer - Writes on-the-air copy for the anchors. The copy is based on the reporter’s notes and the available video. • Video editor - Edits video according to reporter’s notes, writer’s script, or producer’s instructions. • Anchor - Principal presenter of newscast, normally from a studio set. • Weathercaster - On-camera talent, reporting the weather. • Traffic reporter - On-camera talent, reporting local traffic conditions. • Sportscaster - On-camera talent, giving sports news and commentary.
Preproduction Planning • Generating Program Ideas • Clustering- brainstorming where you write down ideas rather than say them aloud. You start with a central idea and branch out to whatever associations come to mind. • Evaluating Ideas • Is the idea worth doing? • It should have a positive influence on someone's life. • Is the idea doable? • Do you have or can you get all medium requirements? • If the answer to both these questions is maybe – then don’t go any further.
The Program Proposal • A written document that stipulates what you intend to do. It explains the program objective and major aspects of the presentation. • It must include: • Program or series title - Short but memorable • Program objective (process message) – the message you want to send to the audience. • Target audience – Who you would primarily like to have watch the show/commercial. Who you want it to appeal to. • Show format (commercial, TV show, or a digital movie) – is it a series? How long will it be? • Show treatment – A brief narrative description of the program. It should explain the angle • Production method – multiple or single camera? What performers or actors? What additional materials (costumes, props scenery? • Tentative budget – How much will this cost?
Lets Take a look… • Please turn to page 20 of your text. • On this page you will see a sample treatment for a one-hour special on the homeless. • Please take the next 15 minutes to read through this sample and answer these questions. • What is the title? • What is the program objective? • Who is the target audience? • What is the show format • What details are mentioned in the treatment? • What is the angle?
Answers • What is the title? • Homeless • What is the program objective? • To make the audience feel rather than watch the plight of being homeless. • Who is the target audience? • middle class/upper class –adults. • What is the show format • One-hour special • What details are mentioned in the treatment? • characters, scenery, emotions some character lines. • What is the angle? • perspective of instantly become homeless from an ordinary persons point of view.
Creating A Commercial Project • So far in class we have learned about the persuasive techniques in advertising,the effect-to-cause model and a little about preproduction planning. • The class will be broken into groups. • Each group will be given a product to research and create a proposal for a commercial. • Please use the rubric to help guide you through this project. • NOTE: We have not learned everything to complete this project 100%. – Just work on research and the proposal today. • Don’t forget to use clustering to get your ideas into motion!
Do Now • Please take out a sheet of paper. • Draw me a picture to go with the following sentence: • A little boy is playing outside, and his mother calls him in for dinner. • YOU HAVE 10 MINUTES!!!!
Storyboard • A storyboard is a sequence of visualized shots; it contains key visualizations points and audio information. • Storyboards can be created by hand or made digitally on some software. • Most commercials are carefully storyboarded shot-by-shot before they ever go into production. • A good storyboard offers immediate clues to certain production requirements, such as general location, camera position, talent actions, set design and props.
Basic Camera Shots • Field of view – refers to how far or how close the object appears relative to the camera, that is, how close it will appear to the viewer. • They are organized into five steps: • Extreme long shot (ELS) – also called establishing the shot. • Long Shot (LS) – also called full shot. • Medium shot (MS) – also called waist shot. • Close-up(CU) • Extreme close-up(ECU)
Basic Camera Angles Long Shot Extreme Long Shot Medium Shot Close-up Extreme Close-up
Storyboarding Activity • The Task: Storyboard the following short horror sequence making use of appropriate shot sizes. • The Scenario: A man returns home, it is nighttime and there is a street lamp outside his house. He put the key into the lock of his front door, it swings open, casting light from outside into the hallway. He tries to flick on the light switch, it doesn’t work. The man looks to his right and notices there is a broken window. He takes a few tentative steps forward, he notices that the telephone is off its hook, beeping. He gasps in surprise. A knife appears. Darkness. • Remember: Storyboards should be quick, clear and simple. They should allow someone who is not familiar with the story to shoot it.
Creating A Commercial Project • So far in class we have learned about the persuasive techniques in advertising, the effect-to-cause model and a little about preproduction planning AND NOW storyboarding. • In your groups please continue to work on your commercial proposal. • After you have completed a proposal it is now time to begin storyboarding your ideas so that they are ready to go into production. • Please use the rubric to help guide you through this project. • Don’t forget to use clustering to get your ideas into motion! • You have now received all necessary training in order to complete the preproduction portion of this project 100%. • Good Luck Teams!!!!
Do Now • Please get into your groups for the commercial project, and take a camera and case to your group and unload it.
The Camera • For this class you will be using the Sony DSR-PD170. This is a professional grade camera made for broadcast television. • There are many settings that can be altered, but today we will just be learning the basic function so will will have everything set to Auto.
Understanding the Microphone Attach the wind screen to the microphone. Loosen the microphone holder screw and open the cover. Place the microphone into the holder with the model name (ECM-NV1) facing upward, close the cover, and tighten the screw. Connect the plug of the microphone to the INPUT 1 connector. Set the INPUT LEVEL selector to MIC or MIC ATT. When set to MIC ATT, you can reduce the volume by about 20 dB(decibels). And set the +48 V switch to ON. Select the channel to be used, using the REC CH SELECT switch. When you record a sound (signal), which comes from the microphone connected to the INPUT 1 connector, only on the channel 1, set it to CH1. When you record both on the channels 1 and 2, set it to CH1•CH2. • Be sure that the camera is always set to Ch1 & Ch 2. This will record audio in stereo. • Set CH1 or CH2 of WIND to ON in the menu settings according to the input
Preparing the Power Supply • Lift up the viewfinder. • Insert the battery pack in the direction of the V mark on the battery pack. Slide the battery pack until it clicks. To remove the battery pack • Lift up the viewfinder.Slide the battery pack out in the direction of the arrow while pressing BATT RELEASE down. • Charging stations are located in the studio on the back wall.
Inserting a Cassette • Install the power source. • While pressing the small blue button on the EJECT switch, slide it in the direction of the arrow. After the cassette lid is opened, the cassette compartment automatically opens. • Push the middle portion of the back of the cassette to insert it. • Insert the cassette in a straight line deeply into the cassette compartment with the window facing out and the write-protect tab facing upward. • Close the cassette compartment by pressing the PUSH mark on it. • Close the cassette lid until it clicks by pressing the PUSH button on the lid
Recording a Picture • Open the shutter of the hood with a lens cap. • Install the power source and insert a cassette. • Set the POWER switch to CAMERA while pressing the small green button. • Slide OPEN in the direction of the B mark to open the LCD panel. • The picture now being shot is displayed on the LCD screen, and it disappears • from the viewfinder screen. • Press START/STOP. Your camcorder starts recording. The “REC” indicator appears. The camera recording lamps located on the front and rear of your camcorder light up. • To stop recording, press START/STOP again. You can use REC START/STOP located on the handle or front instead of START/STOP on the rear. • If the ND1 or ND2 indicator flashes on the LCD screen or in the viewfinder set the ND FILTER selector to 1 or 2. • ND filter can be a colorless (clear) or grey filter. An ideal neutral density filter reduces and/or modifies intensity of all wavelengths or colors of light equally, giving no changes in hue of color rendition. • However, if you change the position during recording, the brightness of the picture may change or audio noise may occur. This is not a malfunction.
Indicators Displayed • [a]Remaining Battery Time • This appears after you turn on the power and wait for a while. • [b]Cassette memory • This appears when using a tape with cassette memory. • [c] STBY/REC • [d]Time code/User bits [e] Remaining tape • This appears after you insert a cassette. • [f] Guide frame • [g]DVCAM format/DV format in SP mode • [h]Audio mode • [i] Time • [j] ND filter • The most suitable mode will flash regardless of the current mode. When you have selected it, the ND filter mode displayed on the LCD screen or in the viewfinder will disappear. • [k] Date
Shooting Backlit Subjects • When you shoot a subject with the light source behind the subject or a subject with a light background, use the backlight function. • Press BACK LIGHT in standby, recording, or memory mode. • The indicator appears on the LCD screen or in the viewfinder. To cancel, press BACK LIGHT again.
Shooting Spotlight Subjects • This function prevents people’s faces, for example, from appearing excessively white when shooting subjects lit by strong light, such as in the theater. • Press SPOT LIGHT in standby, recording, or memory mode. • The indicator appears on the LCD screen or in the viewfinder. To cancel, press SPOT LIGHT again.
Let’s Give it A Try… • Last class you learned about basic camera angles. • You and your group will have 15 minutes to shoot whatever you would like in the school. (you must stay inside the building!) • Utilize both the spot light and back light options, and make sure all your settings are correct before you shoot. • Please use all 5 types of basic shots. • Don’t forget to pay attention to the ND filter!
Lets Take A Look…(On the Sony PD170) • You can monitor the playback picture on the LCD screen. If you close the LCD panel, you can monitor the playback picture in the viewfinder. • Install the power source and insert the recorded tape. • Set the POWER switch to VCR while pressing the small green button. The video control buttons light up. • Slide OPEN in the direction of the B mark to open the LCD panel. • Press m to rewind the tape. • Press N to start playback. • To adjust the volume, press either of the VOLUME +/– buttons .