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Introduction to Information Technology. Module 1. Topics - Discussed. Definition of Information Technology Categories of Computers How the system works the three key concepts Three directions of computer development Three direction of communication development. Computer Ethics.

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topics discussed
Topics - Discussed
  • Definition of Information Technology
  • Categories of Computers
  • How the system works the three key concepts
  • Three directions of computer development
  • Three direction of communication development.
  • Computer Ethics
introduction to information technology3
Introduction to Information Technology
  • Definition : This is a general term that describes any technology that helps produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and / or disseminate information.
  • IT merges computers with communication to make it information technology. Thus there are two main parts to Information technology :
    • Computer Technology
    • Communication Technology
introduction to it
Introduction to IT
  • Computer Technology :

This is a programmable and multiuse machine that accepts data – raw facts and figures an processes or manipulates it into information for future use.

  • Communication Technology

This is also called as telecommunication technology it consists of electromagnetic devices and systems for communication over long distances.

categories of computers
Categories of Computers
  • Super Computers : These are high capacity machines with thousands of processors that can perform more than several trillion calculations per second.
  • Mainframe : hey are water or air cooled computers and vary in size from small to medium and large, depending on their usage. They are often called as mid size computers. The mainframe is accessed by its users through a dumb terminal.
  • Work stations : These are expensive, powerful personal computers used for specific task like designing, 3d animation, engineering calculations etc
  • Micro computers : These are personal computers which are either stand alone or connected over a network. The types of micro computers are - desktop PC, Tower PC, note book ( Laptops), PDA and hand held computers.
  • Micro controllers : these are also referred to as embedded computers. They are tiny in size with a specialized micro processor installed in it. They are normally found in smart appliances and automobiles.
  • Servers : This is a centralized computer that holds the collection of data (Database) and sharing resources between the clients over the network. The entire network is called Client \ Server network.
how the system works the three key concepts
How the system works the three key concepts
  • The three concepts which form the frame work for a computer are:
    • A computer Processes Data to give information
      • Data : raw facts and figures
      • Information : Data that has been summarized or manipulated to give the required result.
    • Computer consists of hardware and software
      • Hardware : Physical components of a computer
      • Software : Programs that consists of the instructions that tell the computer how to carry out a specific task.
how the system works the three key concepts contd
How the system works the three key concepts Contd….

3. Computer performs 5 basic operations:

  • Input operation – the data that is given to the system. Eg Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner.
  • Processing Operation – manipulation the computer does to transform the data into information. Eg. Processor chip,, mother board Etc
  • Storage Operation – this consists of two types of memory :
    • Internal / temporary : circuitry that holds the data waiting to be processed. Eg. Memory Chip
    • Permanent / secondary : devices that store data and information permanently. Eg. Hard Disk, CD.
  • Output Operation : giving the output in the form of information. Eg. Printer, Monitor.
  • Communication Operation : data or information is transferred through a wired or wireless medium for communication purpose. Eg. Modem
three directions of computer development
Three directions of computer development
  • As the time advances the computer has seen its development in the following three directions :
    • Miniaturization: Computer is becoming smaller and smaller in size from the time it was invented with “ENIAC “ that was built using vacuum tubes which were later replaced by transistors and then by integrated circuits.
    • Speed : with the advent of miniaturization more hardware components are now accommodated in the system which work towards increasing the speed of the system.
    • Affordability : with the processor and its components costing less when compared what they were earlier has made the computer more affordable to the common man.
three direction of communication development
Three direction of communication development.
  • The recent development in communication are :
    • Connectivity : this refers to connecting of computers by a communication line for the purpose of online information access or sharing peripheral devices.
    • Interactivity : This refers to two way communication where the user can respond to the information they receive and modify what the system is doing.
    • Multimedia :This refers to technology that presents media in more than one medium in a single integrated communication. Eg. Sound Video and Animation.
with the combination of development in computer and communication
With the combination of development in Computer and communication
  • This resulted in:
    • Convergence : The system has enabled the use of computer technology interdisciplinary .
    • Portability : computer are becoming more portable and mobile.
    • Personalization : creating the information tailored according to the needs of the user.
computer ethics
Computer Ethics
  • In spite of its benefits the following are the threats with the usage of computers :
    • Speed and scale : the threat still prevails about the data security and personal privacy with the increase in speed.
    • Unpredictability : after a certain point the system becomes unpredictable and unreliable.
    • Complexity : some system are so complex that at times they are not understood by their inventors.