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Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Technology

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Technology

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  1. Chapter 1Introduction to Information Technology Information Technology in Theory By Pelin Aksoy and Laura DeNardis

  2. Objectives • Define “information” and understand the four methods of representing and conveying information • Describe some important historical milestones in recording and exchanging information • Explain what technical topics are included in the field of information technology Information Technology in Theory

  3. Objectives (continued) • Describe the role information technologies play in modern society • Articulate some cutting-edge trends in information technology • Gain familiarity with current career specializations in information technology Information Technology in Theory

  4. Defining Information • Defining “information” is not straightforward • A fact or series of facts that carry meaning • The value of these facts strongly depends on context • Examples of information • Spam • 911 emergency call • Air traffic control map • Text message • Instructions for building a bomb • Sports scores Information Technology in Theory

  5. What Counts as Information? Information Technology in Theory

  6. The Various Forms of Representing Information • The routes to representing information have not changed for centuries • Spoken word (sound) • Text • Pictures • Numbers • Today, information technologies (e.g. Web sites) still represent information with text, images (including video), numbers, and sound Information Technology in Theory

  7. How Historically Have Humans Conveyed Information? Information Technology in Theory

  8. Image Technology Milestones Information Technology in Theory

  9. Sound Technology Milestones Information Technology in Theory

  10. Alphanumeric Technology Milestones Information Technology in Theory

  11. The Speed and Scope of Information • What has changed is the speed and scope of information technologies • Consider what a student can do in an hour: • Check out the day’s most viewed videos on YouTube • Make two cell phone calls • Download a homework assignment for class • Exchange several text messages with friends • Book an airline reservation for a spring break trip • Consult a news source • Download a new music file • Use the electronic library system to reserve a book • Check the day’s sports scores • Play an interactive online game Information Technology in Theory

  12. Defining Information Technology • Information technologies are systems of hardware and/or software that capture, process, exchange, store, and/or present information using electrical, magnetic, and/or electromagnetic energy • Technologies meeting this definition range from digital cameras to Internet radio to corporate computer networks Information Technology in Theory

  13. Two IT Examples • Two examples of information technologies that capture, process, exchange, store, and present information: • Cellular telephony • Wireless Internet access Information Technology in Theory

  14. Cellular Telephony Information Technology in Theory

  15. Wireless Internet Access Information Technology in Theory

  16. Organization of this Textbook • I. Introduction to Information Technology • II. Fundamentals of Computers • III. Creating Digital Multimedia • IV. Transmission of Information • V. Introduction to Computer Networking • VI. Telephony and Wireless Multimedia Information Technology in Theory

  17. IT-Enabled Activities • People rely on information technology for entertainment, communication, and a variety of day-to-day functions • Most national economies are enmeshed in information technologies • IT has improved government communications and information sharing Information Technology in Theory

  18. IT-Enabled Activities for People: Personal Communications • Conversations via phones and cell phones • Messaging via e-mail and text messages • Video communications Information Technology in Theory

  19. IT-Enabled Activities for People: Entertainment • Surfing the Web • Listening to the radio • Downloading MP3 files • Watching television • Playing interactive games Information Technology in Theory

  20. IT-Enabled Activities for People: Day-to-Day Living • Buying an airline ticket • Ordering books • Checking the weather forecast or news • Electronic banking • Investing in the stock market Information Technology in Theory

  21. IT-Enabled Activities for Businesses: Internal Communications • Internal computer networks • Internal corporate Web sites • Video teleconferencing • Phone systems, cell phones, voice mail • Messaging via e-mail and text messaging Information Technology in Theory

  22. IT-Enabled Activities for Businesses: Electronic Commerce • Call centers • Electronic transactions with suppliers • Online sales • Point of sale devices and networks • Customer transaction servers Information Technology in Theory

  23. IT-Enabled Activities for Businesses: Business Operations • Factory floor systems • Inventory tracking systems • Customer databases • Payroll and human resources Information Technology in Theory

  24. IT-Enabled Activities for Universities • University phone systems • Messaging via e-mail and text messages • University Web site • Electronic course schedules • Online academic calendar • Electronic classrooms • Library information systems • Online registration • Online applications system • Payroll and human resources Information Technology in Theory

  25. IT-Enabled Activities for Government/Citizen Interaction • Electronic voting systems • Motor vehicle registration • Electronic tax filing • Electronic voting systems • Social Security transactions • Information dissemination Information Technology in Theory

  26. IT-Enabled Activities: Government Functions • Military information systems • Electronic surveillance • Intelligence networks • Air traffic control systems • IRS database • Internal information networks and phone systems • Library of Congress catalogs Information Technology in Theory

  27. The State of IT: Wireless • What’s hot • Being “unplugged” • Wireless LANs (Wi-Fi) • Mobile telephony • What’s not • Being “plugged” • “Dark” fiber • Traditional telephony Information Technology in Theory

  28. The State of IT: Security • What’s hot • Critical infrastructure protection • Firewalls • Biometric authentication • What’s not • Wi-Fi spoofing • Unencrypted transmission • Worms and Viruses Information Technology in Theory

  29. The State of IT: Media-Free • What’s hot • Distributed file sharing • Video downloads • Digital audio files • What’s not • CDs • DVDs • Floppy drives Information Technology in Theory

  30. The State of IT: Interoperability and Openness • What’s hot • Open source code • Interoperable approaches • Open standards • What’s not • Closed source code • Proprietary technology • IM incompatibility Information Technology in Theory

  31. The State of IT: Small Technologies • What’s hot • Mobile devices • Nanotechnology • Distributed processing • What’s not • Personal computers • Macrotechnology • Centralized processing Information Technology in Theory

  32. The State of IT: Convergence • What’s hot • Voice over Internet • Video phones • Multimedia • What’s not • Traditional telephone service • Voice only cell phones • Data only LANs Information Technology in Theory

  33. The State of IT: Speed • What’s hot • Compressed formats • Broadband • Gbps+ • What’s not • Uncompressed formats • Dial-up Information Technology in Theory

  34. The State of IT Careers • Information security jobs • Computer/IT analyst • Network administration • Management consulting • Database administration • Computer forensics • IT sales • Software development • IT advocacy and marketing Information Technology in Theory

  35. Information Security Jobs • Implement and test intrusion detection systems (IDS) • Configure firewalls • Implement encryption technologies • Perform security audits Information Technology in Theory

  36. Computer/IT Analyst • Translate business requirements into technical specifications • Work with business units to document requirements • Support end-user desktop applications, hardware, and shared systems • Train employees who use these systems Information Technology in Theory

  37. Network Administration • Install and manage networks • Provide direct end-user support • Troubleshoot and fix network problems • Performs hardware and software upgrades • Certifications are often required Information Technology in Theory

  38. Management Consulting • IT consultants work as part of a team on limited-term engagements for clients • Involves considerable travel • Some consultants specialize in specific industries • Some consultants specialize in specific technologies Information Technology in Theory

  39. Database Administration • Businesses have database management systems that track thousands, millions, or billions of records. • Database administrators design, create, and maintain these computer systems • Requires programming skills such as SQL and familiarity with specific database products such as those created by Oracle, Microsoft, or Sybase Information Technology in Theory

  40. Computer Forensics • Detect and prosecute IT crimes • Determine whether information has been deleted or modified • Recover deleted information • Trace and locate the source of transmitted or stored material • Search enormous stores of data for evidence • Serve as expert witnesses in court Information Technology in Theory

  41. IT Sales • Must understand business requirements • Must understand technology • Usually involves extensive travel Information Technology in Theory

  42. Software Development • Programming opportunities exist in every industry • Programming touches upon every type of information exchange: music, video, images, voice, etc. • Requires skills like C++ and Java Information Technology in Theory

  43. IT Advocacy and Marketing • “IT activists” • Non-profit groups • Think tanks • Lobbyists for corporations • Marketing engineers for IT companies • Market researchers Information Technology in Theory

  44. What Affects Job Prospects? • Regional differences • Overall economic conditions • Geopolitical circumstances • Industry trends • “Offshoring” Information Technology in Theory

  45. Summary • Information Technology in Theory • Introduces students to IT concepts • Explains computational methods in IT • Explores social issues in IT • Information is represented in four ways • Text, numbers, images (including video), and sound Information Technology in Theory

  46. Summary (continued) • IT hardware and software can capture, process, exchange, store, and present various types of information using electrical, magnetic, or electromagnetic energy • Cutting-edge IT trends include technologies that are secure, high-speed, interoperable, mobile, small, and user controlled Information Technology in Theory