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5/6 Energy Resources- Non renewable- Fossil Fuels & Nuclear. IQ: Which of the following is/are true? Usable electricity is available freely in nature. Solar panels are an environmentally friendly energy resource. Nuclear energy is safe and renewable.

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5/6 Energy Resources- Non renewable- Fossil Fuels & Nuclear


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    1. 5/6 Energy Resources- Non renewable- Fossil Fuels & Nuclear IQ: Which of the following is/are true? • Usable electricity is available freely in nature. • Solar panels are an environmentally friendly energy resource. • Nuclear energy is safe and renewable. • Wind energy is currently the main energy resource.

    2. Energy Resources There are Renewable and nonrenewable forms of energy… • Fossil Fuels (Nonrenewable) • Nuclear (Nonrenewable) { • Solar (Renewable) • Wind (Renewable) • Water (Renewable) • Geothermal (Renewable) • Biomass (Renewable) • http://www.educypedia.be/education/physicsjavalaboenergy.htm

    3. Nonrenewable Resources • Natural resources that either CANNOT be replaced or which may take millions of years to be replaced by natural processes. • Examples: Nuclear and Fossil Fuels- Oil, Coal, Gas, and Some Minerals

    4. 1. Fossil Fuels • Coal, oil and gasare called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals with pressure and heat from under the ground .

    5. How fossil fuel power plant works • Burned to heat water to make steam which spins turbines in power plants. • Currently, the main energy resource. • A lot of energy for less, cheap, but cause pollution, greenhouse gases, and will run out. • http://www.sdarockets.org/pages/science/volkmer/Flash/coalplantvirtualtour.swf

    6. 2. Nuclear Power • Nuclear power is generated using Uranium which undergoes fissionreaction (splitting of the nucleus), and gives off a large amount of heat. • The heat is used to convert water into steam which runs the turbine to produce electricity. • Lot of energy for a little bit of matter, but will run out and harmful radiation is given off. • Waste radioactive for thousands of years. • Chernobyl • Fukushima

    7. OQ: Complete the following flow map of energy conversions in a fossil fuel plant • Chemical

    8. 5/6 Energy resources: renewable--Solar IQ: Which is not a fossil fuel? • Firewood • Coal • Propane • Petroleum

    9. Renewable Resources • Natural resources that CAN be replaced by natural processes in a fairly short amount of time • Examples: Wind, Sun, Biomass, Water, Geothermal, etc.

    10. Roles the Sun Plays The sun plays important roles, or does important things for us here on Earth. Some examples include: It isa major source of heat and light energy. It helps plants to grow. It creates winds. It drives the water cycle.

    11. Did you know that at the sun’s core,or center, nuclear fusion makes enormous amounts of energy? Each second the sun converts about 600,000,000 tons of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei. When the hydrogen and helium combine, reactions change the atoms’ mass (4 million tons) into energy and release it as heat and light into our solar system.

    12. 1. Light, heat and electricity • The sun’s light energy can be converted into electrical energy using solar cells in solar panels. • Light electrical • The sun’s heat energy can be used to heat up water and buildings directly. Energy _______(transfer or conversion or both)? Solar power Bill Nye 6 min Solar to electricity in space

    13. 2 Types of Solar NRG Cells Photovoltaic Hydro Cells Water circulates through channels or pipes inside each panel The inside is usually painted black; why?! the hot water is pumped to a heat exchanger that extracts the heat for use within the house • used to generate electricity • made of semiconductors, similar to those used to make computer chips • A PV cell may power your calculator

    14. To use…or not to use…that is the ? ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES costly to set up only about 10 – 15% efficient less available in areas near the poles of the Earth cloud cover can reduce efficiency even more • renewable • not harmful to the environment • Relatively maintenance free

    15. Helping Plants to Grow

    16. 2.Photosynthesis The sun helps keep plants warm. It also helps them to carry out photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants change sunlight, water, and CO2 into food, energy, oxygen, and water.

    17. 3.Creation of Winds The uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun’s rays causes winds through convection.

    18. Water Cycle Sun in the

    19. 4. The water cycle Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate from the oceans and lakes leaving salt behind. Condensation and precipitation return the water to the mountains, rivers and oceans and the cycle repeats. The constant recycling of water is called the water cycle. It is never ending.

    20. Brainpop water cycle

    21. Let’s Review What are the major roles the sun plays for us here on Earth? What is energy from the sun is called? What is the process by which plants make food? How is the sun responsible for the winds? What is the constant recycling of the Earth’s water?

    22. OQ: What is a major difference in the way electricity is made using fossil fuels vs. sunlight? A. the input and the output energies are both different. B. There is no mechanical energy used in solar. C. There is no energy conversion in solar. D. Solar is 100% efficient and fossil power plants are not.

    23. 5/03 Energy forms review IQ: a) Which would have a higher GPE? A computer or a binder on the 100th floor? b) Which would have higher KE? A basketball or a bowling ball rolled at a speed of 5 m/s?

    24. 5/8 Energy resources: Renewable- Wind IQ: What is one disadvantage of hydropower? • Too expensive • Affects the ecosystem • Pollutes the ground • Affects the bird population

    25. What is it? • useful energy extracted from wind • found at high altitudes - wind speeds of at least 160 km/h are common • Only need 20 km/h to be cost effective. • Wind energy is used to spin the blades of the wind turbines to run the generators and produce electricity. • Check it out!

    26. Wind Farms • Large clusters of windmills • Usually on mountain ridges or passes, or @ top of cliff faces

    27. Also located on the ocean

    28. World wind generation capacity quadrupled between 1997 & 2002 • Currently, about 2% of US energy consumption from wind • 90% of all wind farms are in the US& Europe • Can give at least 12% of the world’s future electricity needs by 2020 • even if consumption doubles

    29. Costs Benefits “fuel’ is free Least expensive of RR Renewable local Provides jobs Clean No pollution • Easily damaged by weather • BIRDS • Noise • Need at least 10 mph winds • Interfere with TV reception • Wind farms need a lot of land area. • Costly to set up

    30. Save the date!! • a worldwide event • a day for discovering wind, its power & the possibilities it holds to change our world

    31. OQ: How are hydropower and wind power similar to each other and different from fossil fuels? How are they different from each other?

    32. OUT ?: Why do you think this house is using multiple renewable energy resources for electricity?

    33. 5/12 Energy resources: Renewable- Geothermal IQ: Majority of the US geothermal power plants are located on the West. What do you think is the main reason for this? • There are more people in the western US. • Western US is near the Ring of Fire. • Average yearly temperatures in the western US are higher. • There is less possibility of using wind or solar in the west.

    34. Geothermal energy • Heat from the Earth. • Usually found along major plate boundaries. On a larger scale: • In GT power plants, steam from under the ground is used to spin turbines to produce electricity- also called a hydrothermal system. • Mostly available in the western US Energy Conversions: Geothermal power plant diagram Which method of heat transfer causes the water to circulate through the pipes?

    35. On a smaller scale: • Can use heat pumps to directly heat water and buildings. Cold water is sent down, gets heated underground, and comes back up to be used. http://geothermal.marin.org/geopresentation/sld102.htm Interesting fact: In Iceland, virtually every building in the country is heated with hot spring water. In fact, Iceland gets more than 50 percent of its energy from geothermal sources!

    36. Enhanced geothermal systems • In an enhanced geothermal system, water is injected into hot dry rock which is forced to crack. The injected water is heated and sent back up and used as a source of energy. • Enhanced geothermal systemanimation

    37. Current usage • US is leading producer of geothermal energy. • Only about 0.5% of the total US energy comes from geothermal. • Efficiency about 16% • Mostly in CA and NV

    38. Benefits: Renewable, no pollution, low maintenance, require very little land area, reliable (available 24/7) Interesting fact: Only 1% of the geothermal energy contained in the uppermost ten kilometers of the Earth’s crust is 500 times that contained in all the oil and gas resources of the world! • Costs: Can’t be used everywhere and may damage the soil.

    39. OQ: Two ways that geothermal is similar to fossil fuels to make electricity:

    40. 5/13 Energy Resources: Renewable Hydro/Water IQ: Which two factors affect gravitational potential energy?

    41. GPE stored in water is converted into KE and used to spin the turbines.

    42. Humans first learned to harness the kinetic energy in water by using waterwheels.A waterwheel is a revolving wheel fitted with blades, buckets, or vanes.Waterwheels convert the kinetic energy of flowing water to mechanical energy which was used to grind grain and drive machinery such as sawmills.

    43. Not long after the discovery of electricity, it was realized that a turbine’s mechanical energy could be used to activate a generator and produce electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was constructed in 1882 in Appleton, Wisconsin.It produced 12.5 kilowatts of electricity which was used to light two paper mills and one home.

    44. To generate electricity, a dam opens its gates to allow water from the reservoir above to flow down(GPE to KE) through large tubes called penstocks. • At the bottom of the penstocks, the fast-moving water spins the blades of turbines. • The turbines are connected to generators to produce electricity. • The electricity is then transported via huge transmission lines to a local utility company.

    45. What type of energy would go in each box? Using arrows, write down the energy conversions taking place in a dam on your left hand side page. What two factors do you think affect the amount of electricity produced by a hydro power plant? Hint: IQ