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DemiDec Super Quiz PowerPoint. The Age of Imperialism: The Making of a European Global Order. 2011-2012: The Age of Empire. I: The First Age of Imperialism. The First Age of Imperialism. In this section we will cover: European expansion into America and beyond

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the first age of imperialism
The First Age of Imperialism
  • In this section we will cover:
    • European expansion into America and beyond
      • Spain and Portugal start things off
      • Britain and France follow and dominate
    • Reasons for expansion
      • Economic dynamism
      • Mercantilism
    • The end of the first age of imperialism
      • Long-lasting effects
pre expansionary interactions
Pre-expansionary Interactions
  • Europeans explored prior to the Age of Imperialism
    • The Roman Empire
    • The Crusades
  • Power was not concentrated in Europe
    • The Ming Dynasty and Admiral Cheng-Ho
  • The Ottoman Empire
portugal and spain take the lead
Portugal and Spain Take the Lead
  • Portugal began exploring early in the 15th century
    • Prince Henry the Navigator
    • The Fortunate Isles
    • Capo Blanco
  • Spain soon followed suit
    • Captured Portuguese possessions
continuing expansion
Continuing Expansion
  • Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama changed the face of exploration
    • Columbus’s “discovery” of America in 1492
    • Da Gama’s 1498 arrival in Asia
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Divided the New World
the company system
The Company System
  • Reasons for existence
    • Lack of government financing
    • Economic opportunity
  • Examples
    • British companies
    • The VOC
    • The French
    • Others
new world colonies
New World Colonies
  • Spanish exploration and colonization
    • Herman Cortes and Mexico
    • Francisco Pizarro and Peru
  • France later explored North America
    • Jacques Cartier
    • Réné de Laudonnière and St John’s River
dutch expansion
Dutch Expansion
  • Dutch success in Asia
    • Indonesia
  • Dutch trading companies
    • The VOC
    • The WIC
  • Success throughout the world
    • Africa
    • North America
british divided attention
British Divided Attention
  • Uninterested in the New World
    • Henry VII and domestic issues during
    • Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church
  • Establishing a domestic empire
    • Modern English imperialism
    • Subduing Scotland
ireland
Ireland
  • Plantation idea
    • Thomas Smith
  • Acceleration of Irish colonization
    • Oliver Cromwell and William of Orange
  • 1800 Act of Union
ireland precursor to america
Ireland: Precursor to America
  • Blueprint for British colonization of America
    • Displacement and dispossession
    • Many of the same people were involved
  • Migrants
    • Individual economic self-improvement of settlers
    • Single men
early british expansion
Early British Expansion
  • Exploration
    • John Cabot
    • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Expansion
    • Economic problems
    • John Hawkins
    • Martin Frobisher
    • John Davis
  • Thinking about colonies
francis drake
Francis Drake
  • Attacker of Spanish ships and settlements
    • “El Diablo”
  • Moved to exploration in 1577
    • Raided Callao and Lima
  • Returned to the New World in 1585
  • Lost at sea
british new world colonies
British New World Colonies
  • Humphrey Gilbert’s plan
    • Newfoundland
  • Roanoke
    • Sir Walter Raleigh
    • Richard Grenville: 1585
    • John White: 1587
    • CROATOAN
  • Moving on from Roanoke
    • The end of Raleigh
the caribbean and asia
The Caribbean and Asia
  • The Caribbean
    • “(One of) the happiest most colonized places on Earth!”
    • Triangle trade
  • Asia
    • Another triangle trade
    • “Bullion for goods”
a new epoch in imperialism
A New Epoch in Imperialism
  • 1715 marked the beginning of a new era
    • Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands dropped out
    • Peace of Utrecht
    • Spain attempted to keep its empire
  • France and Britain: Two superpowers
economic dynamism
Economic Dynamism
  • A myriad of factors caused 18th century changes to Europe’s economy
    • Growing population
    • Consumer demand
    • Innovations
  • Mercantilism
  • Military backbone
dutch decline
Dutch Decline
  • Important counterexample to the rise of empire
    • Greatest maritime power of the 17th century
    • Political and demographic stagnation
    • Elimination of Dutch middlemen
  • Evolved into Europe’s financial brokers
    • Paper currency, stock market, and central bank
mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • Favorable balance of trade for the home country
    • New inflow of gold and silver
    • Adam Smith’s counterarguments
  • Use by Atlantic colonial powers
  • Exploitation of overseas colonies
  • Dependence of trade on naval power
slavery
Slavery
  • An economic foundation
    • Global trade’s dependence
    • New World purchases
  • An ordeal
    • Mass deaths
    • Horrendous conditions
    • Anti-slavery efforts
british and french commercialism
British and French Commercialism
  • The rivalry evolved during the 18th century
    • The West Indies
    • West Africa
    • North America
    • India
  • Key Differences
    • France: Centralized colonial control structure
    • Britain: Independent countries
the great war for empire
The Great War for Empire
  • The last large-scale European war before the French Revolution
    • Known as the Seven Years’ War
    • French and Indian War
  • William Pitt
    • Seizing of French colonies
  • Treaty of Paris
the conquest of india
The Conquest of India
  • The East India Company
    • Battle of Plassey
    • Dual government
  • Political power over Bengal
    • Exploitation of rivalries
  • Parliament seizes control
    • India Act of 1784
    • Lord Cornwallis
colonial opposition
Colonial Opposition
  • Colonial opposition began in 1808
    • Joseph Bonaparte
    • Congress of Vienna
  • The Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Loss of European control
the end of the first phase
The End of the First Phase
  • 1815: The End
    • America
    • Foundations for new European-Asian interactions
    • Changing political and economic factors
review
Review
  • Why did Britain not kick off the first age of imperialism?
  • How did the company system affect European expansion prior to 1815?
  • How did slavery effect the New World colonies?
new imperialism
New Imperialism
  • In this section we will cover:
    • The rise of the new “empire”
    • Europe colonizing the world
      • India, the Ottoman Empire, and China
      • The Pacific Rim, Southeast Asia, and Africa
    • Jules Ferry and his address to the National Assembly
    • Technological imperialism
      • Development of weaponry
      • Steamers
      • The Suez Canal
differing definitions of empire
Differing Definitions of Empire
  • Old “empire”
    • New World empires
  • “Empire” version 2.0
    • Liberal empire
    • Asia and Africa
  • Version 3.0: “New” and improved
    • New imperialism
    • Social Darwinism
challenges to the old empire
Challenges to the Old Empire
  • External challenges
    • Slave agitation
    • Independence movements
    • Loss of control
  • Internal problems
    • The antislavery movement
    • The Enlightenment
economic rationale
Economic Rationale
  • Free trade
    • Elimination of tariffs
  • Capitalism
    • Adam Smith and David Ricardo
    • Inefficiency of mercantilism
  • Economic deterioration
    • Haiti
    • Jamaica
the end of slavery and the rise of the market economy
The End of Slavery and the Rise of the Market Economy
  • The end of slavery
    • Religious fervor, humanitarian sentiment, and economic support
    • Abolition of slavery
  • Rise of the market economy
    • Growth of industrial capitalism
    • Free, self-regulating market
enlightenment universalism and cultural relativism
Enlightenment Universalism and Cultural Relativism
  • Enlightenment universalism
    • Common development path for all societies
    • Assimilationism
  • Cultural relativism
    • Skeptical of supposed European cultural superiority
    • Value in other societies
james cook and thomas macaulay
James Cook and Thomas Macaulay
  • Captain James Cook
    • Explorer of the South Pacific
    • Possessed morality inherent in liberal empire
  • Thomas Macaulay
    • Law Member of the Governor General’s Council
    • Transformation of “backward societies”
india
India
  • Battle of Plassey
    • British domination
    • Economic disaster
  • Alteration of India’s economy
    • Industrialization in Britain
    • Abandonment of subsistence farming
the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire
  • The Sick Man of Europe
    • Tanzimat
    • British dependence
  • De facto British colony
    • The Crimean War
    • The Ottoman Public Debt Commission
  • Disintegration of cultural cohesion
china
China
  • The Sick Man of the East
    • Opium and the trade imbalance
  • The First Opium War
    • Seizing Canton
    • Treaty of Nanjing
  • Taiping Rebellion
  • Economic exploitation
    • No formal colonization
the pacific rim and southeast asia
The Pacific Rim and Southeast Asia
  • The Pacific Rim
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Southeast Asia
    • Expansion through India and China
    • Influence to independent political powers
japan
Japan
  • First occurrence of European failure
    • Escaped implicit and explicit European rule
  • Following the footsteps of the Chinese
    • Matthew Perry
  • Fortune reversal
    • Meiji Restoration
    • Extension of influence
early african interactions
Early African Interactions
  • Greatest imperial shift in the 19th century
  • More frequent interactions
    • Marketplace potential
    • Potential site for civilization
  • Obstacles
    • Disease
    • Physical features
european expansion in africa
European Expansion in Africa
  • Movement toward colonization
    • Removal of obstacles to penetrating Africa
    • Public interest
  • Expansion into the interior
    • British expansion
    • Egypt
jules ferry an introduction
Jules Ferry: An Introduction
  • The man
    • Head of France’s colonial expansion
  • The speech
    • Address before the National Assembly in July 1883
    • Critics’ voices in the speech
jules ferry s address
Jules Ferry’s Address
  • Economic ideas of colonial expansion
    • France’s lack of export markets
  • “Ideas of civilization in the highest sense”
    • Rights of superior races over inferior races
  • “Ideas of politics and patriotism”
    • Increase in global competition
the colonial exhibition
The Colonial Exhibition
  • The Exhibition itself
    • Purposes for being
  • Marshal Hubert Lyautey
  • Focus on information
  • The Exhibition’s results
a historical and an economic perspective
A Historical and an Economic Perspective
  • Historical perspective
    • No systematic expansion
    • Internal hostility in early 1880s
    • World War I
  • Economic perspective
    • Forced labor
    • Land intrusions
colonial opposition north africa
Colonial Opposition: North Africa
  • History of the region
  • Terrible year of hunger
    • Albert Camus
  • Open rebellion
  • Election of the Popular Front
colonial opposition north africa1
Colonial Opposition: North Africa
  • Algerian resistance
    • The North African Star
  • Moroccan resistance
    • Moroccan Action Committee
  • Tunisian resistance
    • The Destour
    • The Neo-Destour
    • Tunis strikes
technology and the triumph of europe
Technology and the Triumph of Europe
  • Technology as the triumph of Europe
    • Western conquest of the world with industrial technology
    • Began in the 19th century
  • Social history of technology
the early exploration of africa
The Early Exploration of Africa
  • The beginnings of exploration
    • Portugal
    • Lacking the means
  • Disease
    • Diogo Cäo
    • Francisco Barreto
    • James Tuckey
macgregor laird
Macgregor Laird
  • Son of William Laird
  • The Lander brothers
  • African Inland Commercial Company
    • Niger River expedition
    • Successful navigation of the River
    • Failure of cultural and commercial objectives
african disease
African Disease
  • “White Man’s Grave”
    • The Royal African Corps
    • British soldiers in Africa
  • The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine
    • Overall statistics
  • Philip Curtin’s statistics
malaria
Malaria
  • Chief killer of Europeans in Africa
  • “Causes of malaria”
    • Mal’aria means bad air
    • Discovery of Plasmodium
  • Cinchona bark
    • Quinine
steamers
Steamers
  • Economic rationale for Niger River expeditions
  • Beyond the Niger River
    • David Livingstone
    • Commandant Marchand
  • Importance of the steamboat
the importance of weapons
The Importance of Weapons
  • Hostile African populations faced by Europeans
    • Imperialist history is the history of warfare
  • Inferior weaponry of Africans in the 19th century
    • Rapid development of the firearm
weapons and bullets
Weapons and Bullets
  • The smoothbore musket
    • Alexander Forsyth
    • Joshua Shaw
    • The Brunswick rifle
  • From firearms to bullets
    • The cylindro-ogival bullet
early wars
Early Wars
  • The Mysore Wars
  • The Mahratta and Sikh Wars
  • Algeria
    • Abd-el Kader
    • Marshal Bugeaud
on to africa
On to Africa!
  • Stacking the deck
    • One-sided confrontations
  • Henry Morton Stanley
  • Crushing Africa
    • General Kitchener and Sudan
    • The Battle of Omdurman
exceptions to the rule
Exceptions to the Rule
  • Africans occasionally held back Europeans
  • Samori Touré
  • Ethiopia
    • Bezbiz Kasa
    • Menelik
the suez canal
The Suez Canal
  • Ferdinand de Lesseps
  • Logistical problems
    • Port Saïd
    • Long couloir
    • Élévateur
  • The canal’s effects
    • A major global achievement
technological imperialism s legacy
Technological Imperialism’s Legacy
  • Lowering the cost of European imperialism
    • Involvement of national governmental and lesser groups
  • Vast stretches of land included in empire
  • Economy empires
    • Cost increased during the 20th century
technological imperialism s impact
Technological Imperialism’s Impact
  • Historians’ debate
  • Height of racism under new imperialism
  • Legacy of fascination with innovation and machinery
    • Obsession with technology
review1
Review
  • What traits characterized the new definition of “empire” seen in the 19th century?
  • Did the Colonial Exhibition accurately portray the position of France’s empire in 1931?
  • How did technology impact the European colonization of Africa?
tactics of rule
Tactics of Rule
  • In this section we will cover:
    • The Scramble for Africa
      • The Berlin Conference
    • Governing the Colonies
    • Tactics of Rule Around the World
    • The Indian Rebellion
    • Imperial Justifications
    • “Shooting an Elephant”
causes of new imperialism
Causes of New Imperialism
  • Technology
    • Technologies redefined imperialism
    • Second industrial revolution
  • Nationalism
    • New incentives to conquer the world
    • Emotional appeals to community and history
causes of new imperialism1
Causes of New Imperialism
  • Economics
    • Colonies as markets for selling industrial goods
    • Upsetting the previous economic balance
  • Politics
    • Primacy of nation-states
    • Germany and Italy
  • Culture
    • Assist the process of state-building
    • Empire’s symbolic property of the nation
the berlin conference
The Berlin Conference
  • Otto von Bismarck
  • Establish ground rules for African colonization
    • Turning point in European diplomacy
  • Centralized power in Africa
new imperial nations
New Imperial Nations
  • Belgium
    • Congo Free State
  • Germany
    • Otto von Bismarck
    • Wilhelm II
  • Portugal
  • Italy
british expansion in africa
British Expansion in Africa
  • Egypt and Sudan
    • The Mahdi
  • Colonization
    • British East Africa
    • British Cape Colony
  • South Africa
    • The Boer War
french expansion in africa
French Expansion in Africa
  • West African and North African domination
  • Expansion from Algeria
  • French Congo
    • French Equatorial Guinea
intra european conflict
Intra-European Conflict
  • Heightened tension in Europe
  • The Boer War
  • Fashoda
    • Britain vs. France
    • The Dreyfus affair
the middle east and india
The Middle East and India
  • The Middle East
    • The Ottoman Empire
  • India
    • Jewel of the British Empire
    • Crucial part of Britain
    • Worry over Indian security
southeast asia and the south pacific
Southeast Asia and the South Pacific
  • Southeast Asia
    • Dutch East Indies
    • British expansion
    • France in Indochina
  • South Pacific
    • Competitive domain
    • American involvement
china and japan
China and Japan
  • China’s decline
    • The Sino-Japanese War
    • The Open Door policy
    • The Boxer Rebellion
    • Overthrowing the Qing
  • Japan’s rise to global power
    • Foothold in Korea
    • Russo-Japanese victory
new imperialism1
New Imperialism
  • Ideological foundations distinct from liberal empire
  • Gradual abandonment of Europeanizing non-Western peoples
    • Supposed biological inferiority of imperial subjects
  • Rudyard Kipling and “The White Man’s Burden”
the darwinian revolution
The Darwinian Revolution
  • Changing what it meant to be human
    • Theory of evolution
    • Capacity of primitives
  • Social Darwinism
    • Fought against the Enlightenment
    • Natural selection
    • Permanence of racial traits
eugenics and the science of race
Eugenics and the Science of Race
  • Eugenics
    • Unfit groups
  • Karl Pearson
    • Biometrics
    • “Uplift the masses”
  • Growth of anthropology
    • Stages of human cultural evolution
    • Edward Burnett Tylor
governing the colonies brute force
Governing the Colonies: Brute Force
  • Portugal
  • King Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo Free State
    • Hard labor at gunpoint
    • Condemnation by European powers
    • Official Belgian commission
governing the colonies the civilizing mission
Governing the Colonies: The Civilizing Mission
  • The French method
    • Mission civilisatrice
  • Result of multiple ideas
    • French chauvinism
    • Part of the French political identity
    • Lesser effect of Social Darwinism
  • Mixed results
    • Destroyed native institutions
    • Natives viewed as potential Frenchmen
governing the colonies indirect rule
Governing the Colonies: Indirect Rule
  • Britain
    • Indian Rebellions
    • Hands-off policies
  • Indirect rule prospered
    • Lower cost
    • Gain of legitimacy
  • Negative consequences
    • Cultures did not remain intact
    • Cleared the path for despots
the indian rebellion overview
The Indian Rebellion: Overview
  • Monumental in the history of the British Empire
  • Indian voices from the rebellion are few and far between
    • Incredibly personal
    • Detail narrators’ personal experiences
the indian rebellion causes
The Indian Rebellion: Causes
  • New rifle cartridges
    • Cow and pig fat
    • Religious offenses
  • Doctrine of Lapse
    • Lord Dalhousie
    • Seizure of Oudh
sita ram
Sita Ram
  • Sepoy in Bengal army
    • Remained loyal to the British
  • Captured during the Rebellion
  • In charge of executions near the end of the Rebellion
    • Saw his own son
  • Wrote down experiences in 1873
vishnubhat godse
Vishnubhat Godse
  • Brahman priest
  • Travelled throughout northern India
  • Met soldiers near Mau in 1857
  • Present at Jhansi during an 1858 attack
pandurang mahipat belsare
Pandurang Mahipat Belsare
  • Came from a well-off family
    • Fell on hard times in the rebellion
    • Failed business ventures
  • Joined a native army
    • Nana Sahib
    • Tough conditions
new imperialism and imperial justifications
New Imperialism and Imperial Justifications
  • New imperialism
    • European domination
    • The scramble for Africa
  • Imperial justifications
    • Social Darwinism
    • Civilizing mission
edmund morel
Edmund Morel
  • British journalist in the Congo
    • Realized the presence of slave labor
    • Observations in Antwerp
  • The Black Man’s Burden
    • King Leopold’s Rule in Africa
king leopold s rule in africa
King Leopold’s Rule in Africa
  • Forced labor
    • Depopulation
    • Everyday effects
    • Infant mortality
  • Reasons for the atrocities
    • Morel sought to understand
    • Hope for Congolese revolt
    • Lack of European intervention
the belgian investigative commission
The Belgian Investigative Commission
  • 1903 report
    • Rumors had already spread
    • Drastic decline
  • Belgian control
    • Atrocities present
    • Brutal conditions
shooting an elephant
Shooting an Elephant
  • George Orwell
    • Young colonial administrator in Burma
  • Internal debate present
  • Situation in Burma perplexed and upset Orwell
    • Hated his job
    • Stuck between hatred for empire and dislike for colonial subjects
shooting an elephant1
Shooting an Elephant
  • Arriving at the scene
    • Elephant on the loose
  • Orwell ordered a rifle
    • Saw the elephant peaceful
    • Knew he should not shoot the elephant
  • A change of plans
    • The wills of the crowd
    • Saving face
shooting an elephant2
Shooting an Elephant
  • Choosing to shoot the elephant
    • Five shots
    • The slow death of the elephant
  • The aftermath
    • Endless discussion
    • Divided European opinion
    • Orwell’s own thoughts
review2
Review
  • What were the causes of new imperialism?
  • What methods of governing their colonies did Europeans use in the late 19th century?
  • What lesson(s) did George Orwell take away from the events of “Shooting an Elephant”?
the end of empire
The End of Empire
  • In this section we will cover:
    • The end of World War II
    • Decolonization
      • South Asia and East Asia
      • North Africa
      • The Middle East
    • Post-war immigration to Europe
      • Multiculturalism
buchi emecheta
Buchi Emecheta
  • Nigerian immigrant
    • Followed her husband to England in 1961
    • Represents post-World War II colonial migration
  • Failed expectations
  • Successful novelist
    • Autobiography Head Above Water
the end of world war ii
The End of World War II
  • Destabilization of colonial control
  • Exacerbated dislike for imperialism
  • Widespread rebellion
    • Algeria, Vietnam, and Indonesia
south asia and east asia
South Asia and East Asia
  • South Asia
    • First major region to achieve independence
    • India and Pakistan
  • East Asia
    • Mao Zedong and the Communists
    • Korea
north african autonomy
North African Autonomy
  • Tough road to independence
    • Not for all
  • Algeria
    • National Liberation Front
    • Charles de Gaulle
    • Evian Accords
independence in the middle east
Independence in the Middle East
  • A Jewish homeland
    • Israel
  • Oil
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Iran
  • Israeli invasion of Egypt
    • The secret plan
    • The fallout
refugees and guest workers
Refugees and Guest Workers
  • Large amounts of immigrants
    • Africans to France
  • Temporary male workers
    • Guest workers
    • Financial and economic sense
  • The end of migrant worker programs
ethnic politics and civil rights
Ethnic Politics and Civil Rights
  • Focus on immigration and race
    • Panic in Britain
  • The economic downturn’s effects
    • Racist concerns
    • Bonnet Law
  • Political activism of immigrants
creating a new culture
Creating a New Culture
  • Immigration affected all of Europe
    • Social policy
    • Mixing of immigrants into society
  • Immigrant communities
    • Domestic life and gender roles
multiculturalism
Multiculturalism
  • Renewed cultural mixture
    • Rock music
    • Eating habits
  • High culture
    • Art
    • Music
    • Films
review3
Review
  • In what sense(s) did former colonies experience freedom during postimperialism?
  • How did immigrant cultures come to affect European culture during decolonization?