Figure 23.13 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Figure 23.13

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  1. Withdrawblood Centrifuge Place in tube PLASMA 55% CONSTITUENT MAJOR FUNCTIONS CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45% Solvent forcarrying othersubstances CELL TYPE NUMBER(per mm3 of blood) FUNCTIONS Water Erythrocytes(red blood cells) Salts 5–6 million Transport ofoxygen (and carbon dioxide) Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chloride Bicarbonate Osmotic balance,pH buffering, andregulation ofmembranepermeability Leukocytes(white blood cells) Defense andimmunity 5,000–10,000 Plasma proteins Albumin Fibrinogen Immunoglobins(antibodies) Osmotic balance,pH buffering Clotting Immunity Lymphocyte Basophil Eosinophil Substances transported by blood Monocyte Nutrients (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, vitamins) Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) Hormones Neutrophil Platelets 250,000–400,000 Blood clotting Figure 23.13

  2. Blood Components: Plasma Transports Solutes Figure 16-1: Composition of blood

  3. Blood Components: "Blood Count" – % of Each Component Figure 16-2: The blood count

  4. Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation • Mostly in bone marrow from stem cells • Rate regulated by cytokines & growth factors

  5. Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell diseases • All blood cells develop from stem cells in bone marrow • Such cells may prove valuable for treating certain blood disorders Figure 23.17

  6. Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation

  7. Focus on RBCs: Bone marrow

  8. Blood Components: Cells Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells (RBC) O2 & CO2 transport Leukocytes White Blood Cells (WBC) Immune defense Phagocytosis Thrombocytes Platelets: clotting

  9. Focus on RBCs: • Loose their nucleus • Cytoskeleton – shape • Hemoglobin • Binds O2 in heme group • Binds some CO2 on globulin

  10. Red blood cells transport oxygen • Red blood cells contain hemoglobin • Hemoglobin enables the transport of O2 Figure 23.14

  11. Focus on RBCs: Hemoglobin

  12. Some Diseases of RBCs and O2 Transport

  13. White blood cells help defend the body • White blood cells function both inside and outside the circulatory system • They fight infections and cancer Basophil Eosinophil Monocyte Neutrophil Lymphocyte Figure 23.15

  14. Platelets Formation Megakaryocytes and platelets

  15. Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured • When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets respond • They help trigger the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot that plugs the leak Figure 23.16B

  16. 1 Injury to lining of bloodvessel exposes connectivetissue; platelets adhere 2 Platelet plug forms 3 Fibrin clot trapsblood cells Connectivetissue Plateletplug Platelet releases chemicalsthat make nearby platelets sticky Clotting factors from: Platelets Calcium andother factorsin blood plasma Damaged cells Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin Figure 23.16A