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Ways of knowing in nursing . What is knowledge?? How a discipline learns defines it’s….. Epistemology = Theory (Study )of Knowledge NURSING KNOWLEDGE – Explicit (Scientific) or Research --Tacit (Experience) or Synthesis of Information. ANALYSIS OF A CONCEPT .

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ways of knowing in nursing

Ways of knowing in nursing

What is knowledge??

How a discipline learns defines it’s…..

Epistemology =

Theory (Study )of Knowledge

NURSING KNOWLEDGE – Explicit (Scientific) or Research

--Tacit (Experience) or Synthesis of Information

ANALYSIS OF A CONCEPT

carper s ways of knowing
CARPER’s WAYs of KNOWING
  • Considered to be epistemology of nursing..
  • Written in 1975, and has been foundational to nursing knowledge since then
  • Other ways of knowing have been proposed,

Ways of knowing are:

Empirics

Ethics

Esthetics

Personal

empiric knowing
Empiric Knowing
  • - objective , abstract, quantifiable
  • - can be verified with testing
  • - arranged into theories
  • - case knowledge (biomedical model)
  • - concerned with “monitoring of disease and therapeutic responses”
  • - quantitative research uncovers this type of knowing
ethical knowing
Ethical Knowing
  • - moral knowledge, based on values of profession
  • - choosing, justifying and judging actions based on duty, rights and obligations
  • - CNA ethical framework guides development of this type of knowing – e.g.: research on human subjects, care of those who are different…
  • - universal values to profession, as well as personal values of the nurse
esthetics knowing
Esthetics Knowing
  • - Art of nursing, intangible essence of what nursing is
  • - attends to uniqueness of “contextual wholeness” rather than particular moment.
  • - is anticipation of outcome rather than just evaluation of select intervention
  • - expressive, intuitive and creative aspect of nursing, and difficult to verbalize (Expert nurse actions done before actual event “How did they know that???)
personal knowing
Personal Knowing
  • - awareness of self in relationship
  • - does not require mediation through language
  • - engagement , active, empathetic participation of nurse as “knower”
  • - means being authentic – incorporating that theory of interpersonal relationships until it is second nature
  • - the “a-ha” experience
criticisms
Criticisms
  • Hasn’t fully developed the aesthetic way of knowing
  • Does not make a distinction between concepts of knowing and knowledge
  • Theory vs pattern of knowledge in nursing
other ways of knowing
Other ways of knowing
  • Experience (Experiential)
      • Benner Novice to Expert
      • Knowing how or ‘knowledge-as-ability” vs knowing that (Carper’s view, according to Benner). Skill based
  • Intuition
      • Non-rational thought processes of feeling or sensing
      • Not logically explained results with vast amounts of experience
  • Unknowing
      • Position of openness to understand the world view of the patient (client-centered). Leads to empathy and pt’s perspective
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Sociopolitical
      • Seeks to understand the ‘wherein ‘ of nursing as a practice profession.
      • Understanding of what nursing is by public, and what society and its politics are by nurses.
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