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A History of Aviation. Notes. What is “Aviation?”. Aviation is… a field of study which includes not only flying, but all activities relating to airborne devices created by humans, generally known as aircraft. t he design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft.

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what is aviation
What is “Aviation?”
  • Aviation is…
    • a field of study which includes not only flying, but all activities relating to airborne devices created by humans, generally known as aircraft.
    • the design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft.
early efforts of flight
Early Efforts of Flight
  • Around 400 BCE – China
    • The discovery of the kite that could fly in the air got humans thinking about flight.
    • Kites were first used by the Chinese in religious ceremonies.
    • Were later used to test weather conditions and in warfare as a way to scare enemies.
    • Were the forerunner to balloons and gliders.
early efforts of flight1
Early Efforts of Flight
  • Hero and the Aeolipile
    • The ancient Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria worked with steam and air pressure to create sources of power.
    • One experiment that he developed was the aeolipile.
      • Hero mounted a sphere on top of a water kettle.
      • A fire below turned the water to steam, which traveled up pipes to the sphere.
      • Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allowed the steam to escape, which gave a thrust to the sphere that caused it to rotate.
early efforts of flight2
Early Efforts of Flight
  • Leonardo da Vinci
    • Sketched the first ornithopterin 1488.
    • The first ornithopters capable of flight were built in France in 1858 – almost 400 years later.
lighter than air aircraft
Lighter than Air Aircraft
  • The Hot Air Balloon
    • Designed by the Montgoflier brothers in 1783.
    • A duck, sheep and rooster first flew on June 5.
    • Had its first successful manned flight onNovember 21.
    • Could not be steered and could onlyfly downwind.
    • The first steerable hot air balloonwasn’t built until 1901 – over 100years later.
  • Read “The Invention of Lighter-than-air Craft”
  • Create a Bubble Map describing the facts surrounding the invention of the first hot air balloon and/or the use of balloons from their invention up to today.
the hot air balloon continued
The Hot Air Balloon (continued)
  • In 1794, the French used a tethered balloon to observe the battlefield and direct attacks during the French Revolution.
  • In 1837, Canadian John Ray successfully launched a weight-carrying balloon.
heavier than air aircraft
Heavier than Air Aircraft
  • George Cayley (1799-1850’s) designed the first gliders that used movements of the body to control.
    • A 10 year old boy was the first to fly one of his gliders.
    • For 50 years, he made improvements to his gliders.
      • He changed the shape of the wings so that air could flow over the wings correctly.
      • He designed a tail for the gliders to help with the stability.
    • Is considered to be the “Father of Modern Aviation.”
heavier than air aircraft1
Heavier than Air Aircraft
  • Otto Lilienthal
    • German engineer who studied aerodynamics, is the first person to make repeated successful gliding flights – over 2,500 flights.
    • In 1891, he built the first glider for long distance flights.
    • Wrote a book on aerodynamics that was used by the Wright Brothers as the basis for their designs.
heavier than air aircraft2
Heavier than Air Aircraft
  • Samuel P. Langley
    • In 1891, Samuel Langley realized power was needed to help man fly for long periods of time.
    • His model called the Aerodrome was steam-powered and flew 3/4s of a mile before running out of fuel.
    • Attempted to make the first piloted heavier-than-air aircraft. His models flew, but his first two attempts at piloted flight were not successful.
  • Read “The Wright Flights” and “Wright Brothers’ Plane: How Did It Fly?”
  • Create a Bubble Map describing the facts surrounding the Wright Brothers and the events leading up to and following their famous first flight.
  • Create a Double Bubble Map comparing and contrasting the Montgolfier Brothers and the Wright Brothers and their inventions.
  • This will serve as a template for two8-sentence paragraphs you will write comparing and contrasting the Montgolfier and Wright Brothers.
  • Please turn in (all stapled together):
    • Balloon (Montgolfier Brothers) Bubble Map
    • Airplane (Wright Brothers) Bubble Map
    • Double Bubble Map
    • 2 Paragraphs