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Documents pour LISA : LISA Science case Science Requirement Document. Pierre Binétruy. LISA-France, LAPP, 1er février 2007. http://www.lisa-science.org/resources/talks-articles/science. LISA Science Case. Goal: present to an educated reader (typically a member of a

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Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Pierre Binétruy

LISA-France, LAPP, 1er février 2007

http://www.lisa-science.org/resources/talks-articles/science


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

LISA Science Case

Goal: present to an educated reader (typically a member of a

committee such as BEPAC) the science case of LISA.

Contributors and editors: John Baker (GSFC), Pete Bender (U. of Colorado),

Pierre Binetruy (APC - Paris), Joan Centrella (GSFC), Teviet Creighton (JPL),

Jeff Crowder (JPL) , Curt Cutler (JPL), Karsten Danzman (U. of Hannover and A.E.I.),

Steve Drasco (JPL) , Lee S. Finn (U. of Pennsylvania), Craig Hogan (U. of Washington),

Cole Miller (U. of Maryland), Milos Miloslavljevic (U. of Texas, Austin),

Gijs Nelemans (Radboud University Nijmegen), Sterl Phinney (Caltech),

Tom Prince (Caltech/JPL), Bonny Schumaker (JPL), Bernard Schutz (A.E.I.),

Michele Vallisneri (JPL), Marta Volonteri (Univ. of Michigan) and Karen Willacy (JPL).


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

LISA Science Case

Goal: present to an educated reader (typically a member of a

committee such as BEPAC) the science case of LISA.

Contributors and editors:John Baker (GSFC), Pete Bender (U. of Colorado),

Pierre Binetruy (APC - Paris), Joan Centrella (GSFC),Teviet Creighton (JPL),

Jeff Crowder (JPL) , Curt Cutler (JPL), Karsten Danzman (U. of Hannover and A.E.I.),

Steve Drasco (JPL) ,Lee S. Finn (U. of Pennsylvania), Craig Hogan (U. of Washington),

Cole Miller (U. of Maryland), Milos Miloslavljevic (U. of Texas, Austin),

Gijs Nelemans (Radboud University Nijmegen), Sterl Phinney (Caltech),

Tom Prince (Caltech/JPL),Bonny Schumaker (JPL),Bernard Schutz (A.E.I.),

Michele Vallisneri (JPL), Marta Volonteri (Univ. of Michigan) and Karen Willacy (JPL).


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

List of contents

Executive Summary

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Executive Summary

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Key science questions

•When did the massive black holes in galactic nuclei form, and how did they grow?

•What fraction of proto-galaxies contained massive black holes in their cores, as a function of redshift?

•What are the mass and spin distributions of the supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei?

•What is the role of black hole mergers in early hierarchical structure assembly?

•What are dynamics of stars near massive black holes in galactic nuclei?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

1% duty cycle

Characteristic time for BH in AGN to increase their mass by accretion:

  • efficiency of

    radiation production

t ~ Mc2/ LEdd~ 4 107 ( / 0.1) yr

~ tuniverse /100 at redshift z ~ 1

 Expect BH present in galaxies are active 1% of the time


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

The coupled evolution of galaxies and their nuclear BH

MBH in M

galaxy bulge velocity dispersion 

( depth of gravit. Potential well)


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Mass density of local BH

BH = 2 to 5 105 M Mpc-3

Most comes from BH of mass between 108 and 109 M

Increase in density of BH if total energy in AGN was produced

by accretion

BH~ 3.5 105 ( / 0.1)-1 M Mpc-3

Supermassive BH growing by accretion? Smaller ones by merger?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Growth and merger history of massive black holes

Merger rate : 1 per year

(1010 galaxies seen by HST have

fossile evidence of a merger

since z=1 i.e. 1010 years)


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Stellar captures and the dynamics of galactic nuclei

EMRI events

(S/M2) ~ 10-4

e.g. diffusion of stars through 2-body collisions


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

List of contents

Executive Summary

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Key Science Questions

•Is the strong field gravity correctly described by GR?

•Are the massive dark central objects in galaxies really black holes?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

M1 = M2 = 2 105M , z=5




Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

List of contents

Executive Summary

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Key science questions

•What is the nature of dark energy?

•What is the global geometry of the Universe?

•What is the Hubble constant?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Inspiral phase

(m1 m2)3/5

Key parameter : chirp mass M =

(1+z)

(z)

(m1 + m2)1/5


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Inspiral phase

(m1 m2)3/5

Key parameter : chirp mass M =

(1+z)

(z)

(m1 + m2)1/5

.

.

R=r1+r2

r=r1-r2

M

1

1

Binary system : L = -- M R2 + --  r2 + G ----

r

2

2

^

Defining r = 1/2 r, the relative motion depnds on the mass

only through:

M = (3 M2)1/5


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Inspiral phase

(m1 m2)3/5

Key parameter : chirp mass M =

(1+z)

(z)

(m1 + m2)1/5


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Inspiral phase

(m1 m2)3/5

Key parameter : chirp mass M =

(1+z)

(z)

(m1 + m2)1/5

Amplitude of the gravitational wave:

frequency

f(t) = d/2dt

M(z)5/3 f(t)2/3

h(t) = F (angles) cos (t)

dL

Luminosity distance


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Inspiral phase

(m1 m2)3/5

Key parameter : chirp mass M =

(1+z)

(z)

(m1 + m2)1/5

Amplitude of the gravitational wave:

M(z)5/3 f(t)2/3

h(t) = F (angles) cos (t)

dL

Luminosity distance

poorly known in the case of LISA

10 arcmin

1 Hz

~

SNR

fGW


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

z = 1 , m1 = 105 M, m2 = 6.105 M

(arcminutes)

5%

Holz & Hughes

dL/dL


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Using the electromagnetic counterpart

Allows both a measure of the direction and of the redshift

0.5%

Holz and Hughes

dL/dL


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

3000 supernovae

100 SMBH sources


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Executive Summary

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Key science questions

•Is general relativity the correct theory of gravitation?

•Is there a large population of ultra-compact binaries in the Galaxy?

•How did compact binaries form and what is the outcome of a common-envelope phase?

•What is the nature of the fundamental physical interactions in compact binaries?

•How are the compact binaries distributed in the Galaxy and what does that tell us about the formation and evolution of the Galaxy?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Ultra-compact

X-ray sources

Neutron star binaries

NS

S/N = 5

S/N = 1

AM CVn systems

resolved WD binaries

WD

average WD binary bkgd


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Several thousands WD binaries individually detected (d< 100 kpc)

Period less than 20 minutes

Several millions unresolved form a background.



Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Studying the astrophysics of compact binaries using LISA kpc)

  • physics of tidal interaction

  • physics of mass-tranfer stability

  • double WD mergers

  • neutron star and BH binaries

  • millisecond X-ray pulsars


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Executive Summary kpc)

Gravitational Waves: An Overview

2. LISA Mission Overview

Black Hole Astrophysics: Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

Black Hole Physics: Confronting General Relativity with Precision Measurements of Strong Gravity

Precision Cosmometry and Cosmology

Ultra-compact binaries

New Physics and the Early Universe

LISA and the Key Questions of Astronomy and Physics


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Key science questions kpc)

•Is there a first-order phase transition at or beyond TeV energies?

•Are there extra dimensions at the submillimeter scale?

•Do stable superstrings exist, and can they be blown up to form cosmic strings?

•What was the quantum state of the Universe at or before the Big Bang?

•How did inflation end?

•Were there violent events in the early Universe that left no relic trace in conventional particles and fields?


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Gravitons of frequency f kpc)* produced at temperature T* are observed

at a redshifted frequency

1/6

f = 1.65 10-7 Hz --- ( ----- ) ( ---- )

1

T*

g*

1GeV

100

At production * =  H*-1 (or f* = H*/ )

Horizon length

Wavelength


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

d kpc)GW

1

GW = --- --------

, c = 3H0/(8GN)

c

d logf

for =1

Gravitons produced at the electroweak phase transition would be

observed in the LISA window.


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

But are gravitons produced in sufficient numbers at the electroweak

phase transition?

If the transition is first order,

nucleation of true vacuum bubbles

inside the false vacuum

Collision of bubbles and turbulence

 production of gravitational waves


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Science objectives electroweak

Understand the formation of massive black holes

1.1. Search for a population of seed black holes at early epochs.

1.2. Search for remnants of the first (Pop III) stars through observation of intermediate mass black hole captures, also at later epochs.

2. Trace the growth and merger history of massive black holes and their host galaxies

2.1. Determine the relative importance of different black hole growth mechanisms as a function of redshift.

2.2. Determine the merger history of two black holes before the era of the earliest known quasars (z ~ 6).

2.3. Determine the merger history of two black holes at later epochs (z < 6).

3. Explore stellar populations and dynamics in galactic nuclei

3.1. Characterize the immediate environment of MBHs in z < 1 galactic nuclei from EMRI capture signals.

3.2. Study intermediate-mass black holes from their capture signals.

3.3. Improve our understanding of stars and gas in the vicinity of Galactic black holes using coordinated gravitational and electromagnetic observations.


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Survey compact stellar-mass binaries and study the structure of the Galaxy

4.1. Elucidate the formation and evolution of Galactic stellar-mass binaries: constrain the diffuse extragalactic foreground.

4.2. Determine the spatial distribution of stellar mass binaries in the Milky Way and environs.

4.3. Improve our understanding of white dwarfs, their masses, and their interactions in binaries and enable combined gravitational and electromagnetic observations.

5. Confront General Relativity with observations

5.1. Detect gravitational waves directly and measure their properties precisely.

5.2. Test whether the central massive objects in galactic nuclei are the black holes of general relativity.

5.3. Make precision tests of dynamical strong-field gravity.

Probe new physics and cosmology with gravitational waves

6.1. Study cosmic expansion history, geometry and dark energy using precise gravitationally calibrated distances in cases where redshifts are measured.

6.2. Measure the spectrum of, or set bounds on, cosmological backgrounds.

6.3. Search for burst events from cosmic string cusps.

7. Search for unforeseen sources of gravitational waves


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Science objectives proposed of the Galaxy

4.1 Understand the formation and growth of massive black holes

4.2 Trace the birth and evolution of galaxies

4.3 Explore stellar populations and their dynamics in galactic nuclei

4.4 Survey compact stellar-mass binaries and study the morphology

of the Galaxy

4.5 Confront general relativity with observations

4.6 Probe the early universe

4.7 Search for new phenomena


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

New science objectives of the Galaxy

4.1 Understand the formation of massive black holes

4.2 Trace the growth and merger history of massive black holes and

their co-evolution with galaxies

4.3 Explore stellar populations and their dynamics in galactic nuclei

4.4 Survey compact stellar-mass binaries and study the structure

of the Galaxy

4.5 Confront general relativity with observations

4.6 Probe the early universe

4.7 Search for new phenomena


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.1 Understand the formation of massive black holes of the Galaxy

4.1.1.Search for the earliest massive black holes and elucidate their

formation mechanism

4.1.2. Search for the remnants of the first (Pop III) star formation

through observation of intermediate-mass black hole capture


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.2 of the Galaxy Trace the growth and merger history of massive black holes

and their co-evolution with galaxies

4.2.1. Determine the relative importance of different growth

mechanisms as a function of redshift

4.2.2 Determine the merger history of small black holes (MBHs

~104 to 3 105 M) in the era of formation of the first galaxies

(6<z<30)

4.2.3 Determine the merger history of black holes (MBH's 3~105 to

107 M) in established galaxies (z<6)


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.3 Explore stellar populations and their dynamics in galactic nuclei

4.3.1 Characterize the immediate environment of MBHs in z<1

galactic nuclei from EMRI capture signals (was 4.2.1)

4.3.2 Study intermediate-mass black holes, and gather evidence

about Pop III star formation, from IMRI capture signals


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.3 Explore stellar populations and dynamics in galactic nuclei

4.3.1 Characterize the immediate environment of MBHs in z<1

galactic nuclei from EMRI capture signals

4.3.2 Study intermediate-mass black holes from their capture signals

4.3.3 Improve our understanding of stars and gas in the

vicinity of massive black holes using coordinated gravitational and

electromagnetic observations


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.4 Survey compact stellar-mass binaries and study the morphology

of the Galaxy

4.4.1 Elucidate the evolutionary history of galactic and extragalactic

stellar-mass binaries (was 5.4.2)

4.4.2 Determine the spatial distribution of stellar mass binaries in the

Milky Way, satellite galaxies and globular clusters

4.4.3 Improve our understanding of white dwarfs, their masses, and

their interactions in binaries using coordinated gravitational and

electromagnetic observations (was A&A 5.b)


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.4 Survey compact stellar-mass binaries and study the morphology structure

of the Galaxy

4.4.1 Elucidate the formation and evolution of Galactic stellar-mass

binaries; constrain the diffuse extragalactic background

4.4.2 Determine the spatial distribution of stellar mass binaries in the

Milky Way and environs.

4.4.3 Improve our understanding of white dwarfs, their masses, and

their interactions in binaries using coordinated gravitational and

electromagnetic observations


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.5 Confront general relativity with observations morphology

4.5.1 Detect gravitational waves directly and explore their properties

4.5.2 Make precision tests of strong-field gravity

4.5.3 Verify that the central massive objects in galactic nuclei are Kerr

black holes (was 4.2.2)


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.5 Confront general relativity with observations morphology

4.5.1 Detect gravitational waves directly and measure

their properties precisely

4.5.2. Test to high accuracy whether the central massive objects in

galactic nuclei are the black holes of general relativity

4.5.3 Make precision tests of dynamical strong-field gravity


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.6 Probe the early universe morphology

4.6.1 Enable studies of the expansion history of the universe using

precise gravitationally calibrated distances to objects where a host

galaxy has been identified (was A&A5a and P&C3a)

4.6.2 Detect or set bounds on cosmological backgrounds

4.7 Search for new phenomena


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

4.6 Probe the early universe morphology

4.6.1 Precisely measure gravitationally calibrated luminosity distances

for precision cosmology when redshifts can be determined

4.6.2 Detect or set bounds on cosmological backgrounds

4.7 Search for new phenomena




Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Intermediate frequency requirements v4i

No substantial differences between 0.1 and 50 mHz


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Strain sensitivity v4i

Low frequency requirements

v3: Lowest frequency requirement is 0.03 mHz

v4i: Lowest frequency requirement is 0.1 mHz

0.03 mHz

v3: 2.6 x 10-16 Hz-1/2

v4i: Goal at 3 x 10-16 Hz-1/2

0.1 mHz

v3: 3.9 x 10-17 Hz-1/2

v4i: 3.9 x 10-17 Hz-1/2


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

High frequency requirements v4i

v3: Highest frequency requirement is 1 Hz

v4i: Highest frequency requirement is 0.05 Hz

50 mHz

v3: No requirement

v4i: 6.5 x 10-20 Hz-1/2

100 mHz

v3: 7.5 x 10-20 Hz-1/2

v4i: 8 x 10-20 Hz-1/2(calculation needed; discovery potential)

1 Hz

v3: 7.5 x 10-19 Hz-1/2

v4i: Goal : 1.5 x 10-18 Hz-1/2


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Other Requirements v4i

4) Arm Configuration

v3: 3 arm configuration required

v4i: No requirement, rather a goal of 6 links

5) Mission Lifetime

Unchanged: Both have 5 year requirement

6) Data Availability

v3: 4 days uninterrupted around merger time w/ 2 weeks notice

v4i: 4 days uninterrupted around merger time w/ 2 weeks notice

Minimum Requirements

Unchanged


Documents pour lisa lisa science case science requirement document

Summary Table of Strain Sensitivity v4i

(units of 10-20 Hz-1/2 & e.g. 2.6(4) = 2.6 x 104)