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Vandalism

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Vandalism

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  1. Vandalism Vandalism of a restored war memorial to students from Malvern Collegiate who were killed in World War I. The monument had just been restored prior to vandalism on Sunday, November 6, 2011.

  2. Vandalism Assumption: Vandalism is not chance or senseless behaviour, but is determined (i.e., it has a cause and just doesn’t happen) like any other behaviour. Vandalism is not a crime in the Canadian Criminal Code Statistics on vandalism are not reliable, but are only very crude guestimates of the actual situation.

  3. Note: The sections on arson and theft are also applicable!

  4. Vandalism: Before & After

  5. Acid-etched Bus Shelter

  6. Repaired Bus Shelter

  7. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  8. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  9. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  10. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  11. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  12. Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.

  13. Learning About Criminal Activity Police reports: possible bias, seasonal variation, special events may change practices, individual may not report certain crimes to police, biases of police my influence arrests. Victimology: corrective for police reports since individuals will record crimes not reported and provide explanations. Self-reports of criminal activity: gives perspective on extent of problem, allows check of possible police biases

  14. Youth Self-Reported Delinquency, Toronto, 2006JuristatCanadian Centre for Justice Statistics

  15. Youth Self-Reported Delinquency, Toronto, 2006JuristatCanadian Centre for Justice Statistics

  16. Hypothesized Causes of Vandalism • Social decay • Inadequate parenting • Lenient courts • Boredom • Conformity pressure • Developmental causation • Aesthetic causation • Environmental factors • Deindividuation (anonymity)

  17. S. Cohen’s Typology of Vandalism Vandalism as institutionalized rule breaking: • Ritualism • Protection • Play • Writing off • Walling in Ideological vandalism Source: Cohen, S. (1973). Property destruction: Motive and meanings. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. London, UK: The Architectural Press.

  18. Vandalism as a Political Tool: Religious Hate

  19. S. Cohen’s Typology of Vandalism Conventional vandalism: • Acquisitive vandalism • Tactical vandalism • Vindictive vandalism • Play vandalism • Malicious vandalism Source: Cohen, S. (1973). Property destruction: Motive and meanings. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. London, UK: The Architectural Press.

  20. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  21. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  22. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  23. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  24. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  25. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  26. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  27. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  28. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  29. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  30. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  31. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  32. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  33. Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.

  34. What’s Wrong with this School?From Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Eductional Facilities Laboratories. • Accessible rooftops • Hidden doorway niches • Inviting unplanned hangouts • Misplaced decorative plantings • Vulnerable playground windows • Unnecessary door hardware • Visible panic bars • Unclear entry statement • Graffiti • Misplaced planned pathways • Reachable wall lettering

  35. Aesthetics and Vandalism • Based on the work of D. Berlyne at U of T on intrinsic motivation Implication: Choice of vandalized objects are not randomly chosen Relevance of aesthetic theory

  36. Aesthetics and Vandalism • Based on the work of D. Berlyne at U of T • Intrinsic Motivation = we engage in behaviours because we find them enjoyable • Aesthetics = the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and expression of beauty • Berlyne: We can understand aesthetics by looking at drive theory • Drive theory is related to strength of nervous system research • Application of drive theory to vandalism • Implication: Choice of vandalized objects is not random

  37. Aesthetics and Vandalism Factors in aesthetics responsible for pleasure: • Complexity • Expectation • Novelty • Intensity • Patterning

  38. Where’s Waldo? Complexity

  39. Novelty? Expectation disconfirmation?