What is a verbal? • A form of a verb that performs the function of a noun, adjective, or adverb. • Ex. Running is good exercise • Running is a gerund, subject of the sentence • Ex. Running swiftly, he caught the thief • Running is a participle, modifying “he” • Ex. The boy is running down the street • Running is a sentence verb.
What is a verbal? • A verbal can NOT take the place of a sentence verb. • Ex. The boy running • This is a fragment! • Ex. The boy running up the stairs is Charles • Running is a participle, modifying boy
What is a verbal? • A verbal can NOT take the place of a sentence verb. • Ex. To face an audience. • This is a fragment! • Ex. To face an audience was a great effort for me. • To face is an infinitive, subject of the sentence
Types of verbals • There are three types of verbals • Gerund • Participle • Infinitive
Types of verbals – 1. Gerund • Definition of a Gerund: • Verbal used as a noun • in present tense ends –ing • Be careful not to confuse it with a participle, which is used as an adjective.
Gerund as a subject • Because a gerund is a noun, it can be used as a subject • Ex. Planning the work carefully required a great deal of time. • The gerund is Planning
Gerund as a complement • Because a gerund is a noun, it can be used as a complement • Ex. I appreciated your taking time to help me • The gerund is taking
Gerund as an object of a preposition • Because a gerund is a noun, it can be used as an object of a preposition • Ex. She was not to blame for breaking the vase • The gerund is breaking
Gerund as an appositive • Because a gerund is a noun, it can be used as an appositive • Ex. His greatest ambition, teaching, became a reality
Advanced Gerunds A. Gerund’s can also take an object, like a verb. • Ex. Planning the work carefully required a great deal of time • The object of Planning is “the work carefully” • Ex. She was not to blame for breaking the vase • The object of breaking is “the vase”
Advanced Gerunds B. Always use the possessive form of a noun or pronoun before a gerund. - Ex. Mr Bridges was surprised at Doug’s offering him the motorboat.
Types of verbals – 2. Participle • Definition of a Participle: • Verbal used as an adjective • in present tense ends –ing • In past tense ends in –ed, -d, -t, -n, or may have a vowel change sing -> sung
Participle • Examples Ex. The broken doll can be mended • The participle is broken Ex. An old coat, faded and torn, was her only possession - The participles are faded and torn
Types of verbals – 3. Infinitive • Definition of an infinitive: • It is the simplest form of the verb and the word to
Uses of infinitive verbals • It can be used as a noun • Ex. To err is human • To err is the infinitive, subject • Adjective • Ex. He had a few books to read • To read is the adjective, modifying books
Uses of infinitive verbals • Or as an adverb. • Ex. Frank seemed eager to go • To go is the adverb modifying eager. • HINT: If you can use the phrase “in order” before it, it is usually an adverb • Ex. Katy paid ten dollars (in order) to get good seats.
Advanced Uses of infinitive verbals • What about? Susan helped carry the packages. • To is omitted because it is understood as “Susan helped to carry the packages.” • It is a noun, direct object of helped