Air Pollution Sources and Impacts. Content Historical Background Sulphur oxides Nitrogen oxides Particulate matter Ozone depleting substances MARPOL Annex VI: An overview. Activities Pollutants Immediate effects Impacts. Transport. Human health.
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Sources and Impacts
(Engraving showing a foundry in Saar,
«Αs I was moving far away from the asphyxiating air of Rome and the soot of stacks dispersing poisonous gases around, I felt my mood changing»
Senekas, 61 A.C.
Las Vegas, USA
4.000 people were fatally exposed to high SOx and smoke concentrations in London (1952)
A forest in Jizera, Czech Republic
Forest areas (%) in Europe receiving acid rain
>25 μg/m3 dyspnea, asthma crisis
Secondary ozone formation
ΝΟx + VOCs + sun radiation Ο3 + Photochemical pollution
Photochemical smog occurs in sunny periods with high temperatures, low moisture and relatively high levels of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.
PM 10 PM 2.5
(10 μm) (2,5 μm)
(70 μm diameter)
ΝΟx 0,17% (1500 ppm)
SOx 0,15% (800 ppm)
HC 0,02% (180 ppm)
CO 0,07% (80 ppm)
NOx Technical Code
Every engine must:
Emissions reduction methods
Air conditioning – Cooling systems
CFC – 113
CFC – 114, CFC- 115