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Follow the Grain. A Private Breeder’s Perspective January 21, 2010. Outline. Homework or challenge Background Breeding Companies WestBred PVP History and Practice Maybe wheat classes and must know math. Monsanto Announcement. July 2009 Monsanto acquired WestBred, LLC from Barkley Ag

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follow the grain

Follow the Grain

A Private Breeder’s Perspective

January 21, 2010

  • Homework or challenge
  • Background
  • Breeding Companies
  • WestBred
  • PVP History and Practice
    • Maybe wheat classes and must know math
monsanto announcement
Monsanto Announcement
  • July 2009 Monsanto acquired WestBred, LLC from Barkley Ag
  • Big news for wheat research
  • Concomitant activities of other companies
my new role
My New Role

Wheat Industry Advisor

Barkley Ag Enterprise

  • Why me and Why now?
world population growth
World Population Growth

Increases in population will create new demand for food and agriculture markets

Source: International Database

global demand for crops projected to grow
Global Demand for Crops Projected to Grow

Source: IHS Global Insights, Agriculture Division

wheat one of the most important crops
Wheat: One of the Most Important Crops

Fast Wheat Facts:

  • Wheat is planted on more than 555 million acres worldwide.
  • In seven of the last 10 years, the world has consumed more wheat than it produced.
  • More foods are made with wheat than any other cereal grain.

Source: Wheat Foods Council

private cereal breeding co s
Private Cereal Breeding Co’s
  • AgriPro Syngenta
  • BASF
  • Bayer CropScience
  • Dow AgriScience
  • Limagrain (France)
  • Pioneer DuPont
  • WestBred Monsanto
  • World Wide Wheat
today going into phase i
Today going into Phase I

Breeding history of 30 years

Research breeding continuing as it has in the past

We are not forgetting on how we got to today

Implementation of currently available Breeding Tools

Molecular Markers & Doubled Haploids

Increased Analytical testing

today phase i cont
Today . . . Phase I (cont.)

Collaboration with Public and Private sectors

Continuance of Industry Acceptance, farmers, domestic millers, overseas buyers

Evaluation of platform of trait development in wheat germplasm

phase i phase ii
Phase I & Phase II

Continued commercialization and release of Elite Germplasm

Establishing a Genetic Footprint

Seeking acceptance of Biotech and implementation of Traits














Monsanto Will Use Breeding and Biotech

monsanto s commitment
Monsanto’s Commitment

Producing more

Conserving more

Improving lives

intellectual property protection
Intellectual Property Protection
  • Plant Variety Protection Certificates [PVP’s]
  • Plant Patents
  • Utility Patents
pvpa history
PVPA History
  • Plant Patent Act 1930
  • UPOV in Europe 1961
  • Plant Varieties & Seeds Act (UK) 1964
  • Plant Variety Protection Act 1970
pvpa history1
PVPA History
  • Plant Variety Protection Act 1970
    • Requirements: -distinct
        • uniform
        • stable
    • Exemptions: - license in public interest
        • research exemption
        • farmer’s saved seed
pvp problems
  • Saved seed exemption
    • Delta and Pine Land

v. Peoples Gin 1983

    • Pioneer 2157 1989
    • Asgrow v. Winterboer 1991
pvpa history2
PVPA History
  • PVPA 1970 1972
    • 17 years (US joined UPOV 1981)
  • PVPA Amended 1982
    • 18 years
  • PVPA Amended 1994
    • 20 years
pvpa history3
PVPA History
  • PVPA Amended 1994
    • 20 years
    • New, distinct, stable, predictable
    • No ‘Variety Not Stated’ (VNS)
    • Essential derivation
    • No farmer’s seed exemption
pvpa history4
PVPA History
  • “Title V” Option
  • Variety can only be sold as seed as a class of certified seed
    • Part of the Federal Seed Act
    • Elected with PVP application or subsequent
    • Can be added, never removed
pvpa violations
PVPA Violations
  • Without certificate holders permission:
    • sell, offer for sale, exchange as seed
    • import into or export from the US
    • use to produce a hybrid
    • fail to give notice as to its PVP status
    • condition the variety for propagation
    • use for essential derivation
pvpa excuses
PVPA Excuses
  • Didn’t know it was protected
  • Didn’t use the name
  • Didn’t sell it as seed, just grain
  • Didn’t sell it, just traded for it
  • Farmers have a “God-given right” to save and sell seed
  • Members of “x” can pool seed
pvp vs utility patent
PVP vs. Utility Patent
  • PVP gives license to legal user
  • PVP gives limited control over use
  • PVP has exemptions
    • research
    • national emergency or necessity
utility patent
Utility Patent
  • PVP gives license to legal user
  • Utility Patent gives no license
  • Utility Patent has few exemptions
additional information
Additional Information
  • A few more bits of information for those traveling to Chile
us wheat classes
US Wheat Classes
  • Hard red winter
  • Hard red spring
  • Soft red winter
  • Durum
  • Hard white
  • Soft white
    • Winter, spring, club
wheat barley
Wheat Barley

Yield Price Yield Price

must know math
Must Know Math !
  • Yield: kg/ha or MT (m.t. or M.T.)/ha
  • kg = 2.2046 pounds
  • MT = 2204.6 pounds
  • ha = 2.471 acres
  • ~kg/ha approx. equal to lb/acre
must know math1
Must Know Math !
  • World Test Weight
  • kg / hl
      • = lb/bu X 1.287
      • 60 lb/bu = 77 kg/hl
      • 48 lb/bu = 62 kg/hl