Background • Also called ‘The Notional-Functional Approach’(觀念/意念功能教學法） • In 1960s, Situational Language Teaching(情境式語言教學）was popular. • Learners are able to socialise/ communicate (溝通/交際）with social notions in social situations. • Emphasis shifts from language structures to communicative functions.
Background (cont.) • Most of the methods are for Ss to learn to communicate in target language. • In 1960’s, it has been questioned that Ss couldn’t genuinely communicate outside of the classroom properly. • Being able to communicate required more than mastering linguistic structures.
Background (cont.) • Communication required Ss perform certain functions within a social context. Linguistic competence – rules of linguistic usage. • Communicative competence – knowing when and how to say what to whom. • In late 1970’s and early 1980’s, linguistic structure-centered approach shifted to Communicative Approach.
A communicative (or funtional/notional) approach is organised on the basis of communicative functions (e.g.aplogising, describing, inviting, promising) that a given learner of group of learners needs to know and emphasises the ways in which particular grammatical forms may be used to express these functions appropriately (Canale & Swain, 1980:1)
Theory 1965, Noam Chomsky- linguistic competence. Learners are able to communicate with grammatically correct sentences. VS. 1972, Dell Hymes- communicative competence. When communicative competence is acquired, learners should acquire the knowledge and competence in different situations.
Theory (cont.) • Communicative competence: • Dell Hymes (1972) • 1.possiblility 可能性 • 2.feasibility 可行性 • 3.appropriateness 適當性 • 4.probability 現實性
Theory (cont.) • Communicative Competence: • Canale & Swain (1980) • 1. linguistic competence 語法能力 • 2. sociolinguistic competence社會語言能力 • 3. discourse competence話語能力 • 4.strategic ceompetence策略能力
Theory (cont.) • Three principles by Richards & Rodgers (1986): • The communication principle: activity design with communicative purpose. • The task principle: activity design with using language to achieve meaningful task. • The meaningfulness principle: activity design should be meaningful to the learners.
Theory (cont.) • Richards (1985) • Communication is meaning-based. • Communication is conventional. • Communication is appropriate. • Communication is interactional. • Communication is structured.
Aims • Communicative competence. • Interdependence of language and communication. • Broadly apply the theoretical perspective of the Communicative Approach.
Characteristics • Done with a communicative intent. • Use authentic materials.
Teacher/ students’ role • Teacher- facilitator, advisor. less dominant than teacher- centered. • Students- communicators. actively engaged in negotiating meaning (try to make themselves understood and understand others)
Three features of communication information gap- one person in an exchange knows something the other person doesn’t. choice – speaker has a choice of what he/she will say and how to say it. feedback- communication is purposeful. Evaluate if purpose has been achieved by feedback.
Three conditions for communication • Have something to say. • Have someone to say to. • Have a genuine interest in the outcome of the communication (involved, engaged).
Ways to stop Ss communicating • Ask Qs to which you already know the answer. • Reject Ans. If they’re not the ones you’d thought of. • Reject Ans. If they’re not the ones the textbook demands. • Respond to the form rather than the content. • Initiate every piece of communication yourself. • Pretend to understand when you haven’t. • Fill the silences.