The Epilogue to Developmental Theory. Walkerdine’s Stance. How do we formulate a “liberatory pedagogy” ?.
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How do we formulate a “liberatory pedagogy” ?
“…It is precisely this and its insertion into a framework of biological capacities which ensures that the child produced as an object of the scientific and pedagogical GAZE by means of the very mechanisms that were intended to produce its liberation.
“It is perhaps the supreme irony that the concern for individual freedom and the hope of a naturalized rationality that could save mankind should have provided the conditions for the production of a set of apparatuses which would aid in the production of the normalized child…
“However, recent research has shown that subjects from other types of schools or different social environments sometimes give results differing more or less from the norms indicated This does not mean that formal structures are exclusively the result of a process of social transmission.
“A second interpretation is possible which would take into account the diversification of aptitudes with age, but this would mean excluding certain categories of normal individuals, even in favorable environments, from the possibility of attaining a formal level of thinking.”
“In other words, our fourth period can no longer be characterized as a proper stage, but would already seem to be a structural advancement in the direction of specialization.
Socio-Cultural Theory:Offers a different explanation for differences.
Vygotsky & Mead circa 1930’s
Developmental Science 8:6 (2005), pp 492–499
One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game
"The pre-existence of social processes to the self-conscious individual"
To the extent that the animal can take the attitude of the other and utilize that attitude for the control of his own conduct, we have what is termed mind; and that is the only apparatus involved in the appearance of mind.
The plant or the lower animal reacts to its environment, but there is no experience of a self
One attains self-consciousness …as he finds himself stimulated to take the attitude of the other. There he is in the position of reacting in himself to that attitude of the other. (p.229)