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Electronic Multicriticality In Bilayer Graphene. Vladimir Cvetković. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Florida State University. Physics Department Colloquium Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO, October 2, 2012. Superconductivity.

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Vladimir cvetkovi

Electronic Multicriticality

In Bilayer Graphene

Vladimir Cvetković

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

Florida State University

Physics Department Colloquium

Colorado School of Mines

Golden, CO, October 2, 2012


Superconductivity

http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/mediacenter/seminars/winterschool2013/

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

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Collaborators
Collaborators

Dr. Robert E. Throckmorton

Prof. Oskar Vafek

NSF Career Grant (O. Vafek): DMR-0955561

V. Cvetkovic, R. Throckmorton, O.Vafek, Phys. Rev. B 86, 075467 (2012)


Graphite
Graphite

Carbon allotrope

Greek (γράφω) to write

Graphite: a soft, crystalline form of carbon. It is gray to black, opaque, and has a metallic luster. Graphite occurs naturally in metamorphic rocks such as marble, schist, and gneiss.

U.S. Geological Survey

Mohs scale 1-2


Graphite electronic orbitals
Graphite electronic orbitals

  • Hexagonal lattice

  • space group P63/mmc

  • Orbitals:

  • sp2 hybridization (in-plane bonds)

  • pz (layer bonding)


Massless dirac fermions in graphene
Massless Dirac fermions in graphene

Interesting electronic properties

p-bond

s-bond

Strong cohesion (useful mechanical properties)


Massless dirac fermions in graphene1
Massless Dirac fermions in graphene

Tight binding Hamiltonian

where

Spectrum

Velocity: vF = t a ~106 m/s

Dirac cones:

Sufficient conditions:

C3v and Time reversal

Necessary conditions:

Inversion and Time reversal

(*if Spin orbit coupling is ignored)


Graphene fabrication
Graphene fabrication

Obstacle: Mermin-Wagner theorem

Fluctuations disrupt long range crystalline order in 2D at any finite temperature

Epitaxially grown graphene on metal substrates (1970):

Hybridization between pz and substrate

Exfoliation: chemical and mechanical

Scotch Tape method (Geim, Novoselov, 2004)



How to see a single atom layer
How to see a single atom layer?

P. Blake, et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007)

graphene

300nm

SiO2

Si


Ambipolar effect in graphene
Ambipolar effect in Graphene

A. K. Geim & K. S. Novoselov, Nature Materials 6, 183 (2007)

Isd

Graphene

Vg

  • Mobility:

  • m = 5,000 cm2/Vs (SiO2 substrate, this sample = 2007)

  • m = 30,000 cm2/Vs (SiO2 substrate, current)

  • m = 230,000 cm2/Vs (suspended)


Graphene in perpendicular magnetic field qhe
Graphene in perpendicular magnetic field: QHE

Isd

Hall bar geometry

H

Graphene

Vg

IQHE: Novoselov et al, Nature 2005

Room temperature IQHE: Novoselov et al, Science 2007


Graphene in perpendicular magnetic field fqhe
Graphene in perpendicular magnetic field: FQHE

FQHE: C.R. Dean et al, Nature Physics 7, 693 (2011)


Bilayer graphene
Bilayer Graphene

Two layers of graphene

Bernal stacking

Tight binding Hamiltonian

Spectrum


Trigonal warping in bilayer graphene
Trigonal warping inBilayer Graphene

Parabolic touching is fine tuned (g3 = 0)

Tight binding Hamiltonian with g3 :

Vorticity:


Bilayer graphene in perpendicular magnetic field
Bilayer Graphene in perpendicular magnetic field

Isd

Hall bar geometry

H

BLG

Vg

IQHE: Novoselov et al, Nature Physics 2, 177 (2006)


Widely tunable gap in bilayer graphene
Widely tunable gap inBilayer Graphene

Y. Zhang et al, Nature 459, 820 (2009)


Trilayer graphene
Trilayer Graphene

ABA and ABC stacking


Band structure abc trilayer graphene
Band structureABC Trilayer Graphene

Tight binding Hamiltonian


Non interacting phases in abc trilayer graphene
Non-interacting phases inABC Trilayer Graphene

Spectrum:

Phase transitions, even with no interactions

D

3-

9-

3+

Dc2

Dc1


Electron interactions mean field
Electron interactions(Mean Field)

An example: Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Hamiltonian (one band, short range)

Superconducting order parameter

Decouple the interaction into quadratic part and neglect fluctuations

0

The transition temperature

Debye frequency wD = L2/2m

Only when g>0 !


Different theories at different scales rg
Different theories at different scales (RG)

What if wD were different?

Make a small change in L:

How to keep Tc the same?

This example shows that the interaction is different at different scales.

  • The main idea of the renormalization group (RG):

  • select certain degrees of freedom (e.g., high energy modes, high momenta modes, internal degrees of freedom in a block of spins...)

  • treat them as a perturbation

  • the remaining degrees of freedom are described by the same theory, but the parameters (couplings, masses, etc) are changed

Our example (BCS): treat high momentum modes perturbatively (one-loop RG)

... but RG is much more powerful and versatile than what is shown here.


Finite temperature rg
Finite temperature RG

Revisit our example (BCS)

Treat fast modes perturbatively

The change in the coupling constant

The effective temperature also changes

In this simple example we can solve the b-function

... and find the Tc


Electron interactions in single layer graphene
Electron Interactions inSingle Layer Graphene

Rich and open problem, nevertheless in zero magnetic field:

Short-range interactions: irrelevant (in the RG sense) when weak.

As a consequence, the perturbation theory about the non- interacting state becomes increasingly more accurate at energies near the Dirac point

Coulomb interactions: marginally irrelevant (in the RG sense) when weak

semimetal*

QCP

insulator

O. Vafek, M.J. Case, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033410 (2008)

In either case, a critical strength of e-e interaction must be exceeded for a phase transition into a different phase to occur. Hence, this is strong coupling problem.


Electron interactions in bilayer graphene
Electron Interactions inBilayer Graphene

The kinetic part of the action

where

Short range interactions: marginal by power counting

Classified according to IR’s of D3d

Fierz identities implemented


Symmetry allowed dirac bilinears order parameters in blg
Symmetry allowed Dirac bilinears (order parameters) in BLG

VC, R.E. Throckmorton, O. Vafek, Phys. Rev. B 86, 075467 (2012)


Rg in bilayer graphene no spin
RG in BilayerGraphene (no spin)

Fierz identities reduce no of independent couplings to 4

O. Vafek, K. Yang, Phys. Rev. B 81, 041401(R) (2010)

O. Vafek, Phys. Rev. B 82, 205106 (2010)

Susceptibilities (leading instabilities, all orders tracked simultaneously)

Possible leading instabilities: nematic, quantum anomalous Hall, layer-polarized, Kekule current, superconducting


Experiments on bilayer graphene
Experiments on Bilayer Graphene

A.S. Mayorov, et al, Science 333, 860 (2011)

Low-energy spectrum reconstruction


Rg in bilayer graphene spin 1 2
RG in Bilayer Graphene (spin-1/2)

VC, R.E. Throckmorton, O. Vafek, Phys. Rev. B 86, 075467 (2012)

Finite temperature RG with trigonal warping

… used to be tanh(1/2t)

Susceptibilities (determine leading instabilities)



General phase diagram density density interaction
General phase diagram(density-density interaction)

Density-density interaction

Bare couplings in RG:


Coupling constants fixed ratios
Coupling constantsfixed ratios

In the limit

the ratios of g’s are fixed

The leading instability depends on the ratios (stable ray)

  • Stable flows:

  • Target plane

  • Ferromagnet

  • Quantum anomalous Hall

  • Loop current state

  • Electronic density instability

  • (phase segregation)


Rg in trilayer graphene
RG in Trilayer Graphene

Belongs to a different symmetry class

Number of independent coupling constants in Hint: 15

Spectrum

RG flow


Generic phase diagram in trilayer graphene
Generic Phase Diagramin Trilayer Graphene


Trilayer graphene special interaction cases
Trilayer Graphene(special interaction cases)

Hubbard model

(on-site interaction)

Forward scattering


Generic phase diagram in trilayer graphene1
Generic Phase Diagramin Trilayer Graphene


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