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Inference. A reasonable guess about meaning. Reading “between the lines” to discover the author’s meaning. What I learned (read) + What I already know = My inference. Making Inferences. In other words, an inference is an “educated guess”.

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Making inferences

Inference

A reasonable guess about meaning.

Reading “between the lines” to discover the author’s meaning.

What I learned (read) + What I already know = My inference

Making Inferences

In other words, an inference is an “educated guess”.

What you think based on what you know/have learned/have observed.


Making inferences

Let’s do some real world examples—then we will apply our understanding

of inference to something we have read.

The classroom is quiet. Suddenly, the girl next to you shivers

and slides on her jacket and then rubs her hands together before

continuing with her assignment.

What can you infer from this statement?

--it’s cold in the classroom

--it’s winter time

--she is in Mrs. Henry’s class :-)

Why?

--”The classroom is quiet.”

--the girl “shivers’ and puts on her jacket

--the girl “rubs her hands together”

--your experience (indirect evidence)


Making inferences

Another example--

It’s about 6 pm and you hear noise in the kitchen. In the kitchen you find your

grandma standing over a pot of boiling water. Into that water she is dropping

long, thin pasta. In another pot, you see red tomato sauce—the aroma is making

your mouth water!

What can you infer?

--grandma is cooking

--grandma is making spaghetti

--grandma is making spaghetti for dinner

How do you know?

--it is around “dinner time’

--boiling water/pasta

--red tomato sauce

--your experience (indirect evidence)


Making inferences

Now for a more academic example . . . .

Let’s read the VERY short story Spite by Sam Silva

Then we will answer a few

questions that require using

inference to answer.


Making inferences

Why is the title an appropriate one for this story?

ap⋅pro⋅pri⋅ate

–adjective

spite

–noun

Definitions supplied by dictionary.com

Hint:

The word “why” tells you that it is already assumed that the title IS appropriate!

Let’s answer the question!!!


Making inferences

Next question . . .

Is Seth a religious person?

This seems to be a yes/no question . . .

Explain your inference.

Where in the story did I get the

idea that Seth was/was not

religious? Where’s my proof?

Where’s my EVIDENCE?

Let’s answer the question!!!


Making inferences

Try the next question on your own . . . (it’s also a yes/no question!)

and then explain your answer.

Last question:

What do you think the mother meant by “games with string”?

When you are asked questions that begin

“What do you think”—it is to be assumed that

you are EXPECTED to support your thoughts

And interpretations with proof/EVIDENCE from

a source (in this case the story)


Making inferences

What we have done in this small assignment is answer yes/no question!)open-ended type questions,

much like the types of questions posed on your state exams!

Look at these:

What is the major conflict in Around the River-bend? Be sure to support your answer with evidence from the text.

How did the little boy change from the beginning of the story to

the end in The Friendship? Be sure to support your answer with evidence

from the text.

Why was Florence Nightingale's family so opposed to her becoming a nurse?

Be sure to support your answer with evidence

from the text.

Open-ended questions REQUIRE proof/EVIDENCE!


The 4 i s for o e q s open ended questions

I yes/no question!)dea

Insert

Interpret

Insight

What is my answer to this question?

Evidence from the text that supports my answer to the question.

“This evidence shows that . . .”

Clarify how the evidence supports the answer.

What can we infer that the author is saying about life or the situation?

“The Bigger Picture”

The 4 I’s for O.E.Q.’s (Open Ended-Questions)